Collaborative Landforms Gallery

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Creative Commons Licence [Some Rights Reserved]   Text © Copyright September 2012, Barry Hunter; licensed for re-use under a Creative Commons Licence.
Images also under a similar Creative Commons Licence.

This gallery is being built collaboratively, images from Britain and Ireland have been provided to illustrate various landforms extracted from a list of Wikipedia Articles with category LandformsExternal link. Contents shown are for this page; there is a full list on first page

Shrub swamp

Shrub swamps, also called scrub swamps or buttonbush swamps, are a type of freshwaterExternal link wetlandExternal link ecosystemExternal link occurring in areas too wet to become hardwood swampsExternal link (“true” or forested swamps), but too dry or too shallow to become marshesExternal link. They are often considered transitional (“mid-successional”) between wet meadowsExternal link or fensExternal link and conifer or hardwood swamps.
Wikipedia pageExternal link

SN7064 : Shrubs in Cors Caron Nature Reserve by Rudi Winter D1152 : Brockley by Anne Burgess


A skerry is a small rocky island, usually defined to be too small for habitation. It may simply be a rocky reefExternal link. A skerry can also be called a low sea stackExternal link.
Wikipedia pageExternal link

NM3135 : Skerries to the west of Staffa by Oliver Dixon NN0259 : Skerries, Loch Linnhe by Ian Taylor NT2081 : Cow and Calves by Richard Webb NM3135 : Skerry off Staffa by Richard Webb NM8746 : Skerry off Eilean nam Meann, Lismore by Michael Jagger NM8847 : Sgeir nam Tom by Michael Jagger NM7734 : Sgeir nan Gael by David P Howard NG0082 : Grocis Sgeir and Knight Rock by Richard Webb NB1744 : Dubh Sgeir by George Brown HW6130 : Sula Sgeir from the South West by Peter Strugnell NT6879 : Round Steeple and The Yetts, Dunbar, viewed from Meikle Spiker by Richard West NT6679 : Coastal East Lothian : Looking Towards Long Craigs, near Dunbar by Richard West

Slot canyon

A slot canyon is a narrow canyonExternal link, formed by the wear of water rushing through rock. A slot canyon is significantly deeper than it is wide. Some slot canyons can measure less than one metre (3 ft) across at the top but drop more than 30 m (100 ft) to the floor of the canyon.
Wikipedia pageExternal link

SD7896 : Looking down Hell Gill from the bridge by Ian Greig SE0973 : How Stean Gorge by Peter Bond SD7074 : Baxengill Gorge, River Doe, near Ingleton by Dr Neil Clifton NH2078 : Corrieshalloch Gorge by Dr Richard Murray SN7477 : Narrow gorge, Devil's Bridge by Jaggery SD6680 : Ease Gill, the Upper Kirk by Karl and Ali NH5966 : Footbridge from the Blackrock Gorge by Sandy MacLennan SD9164 : The falls at Gordale Scar by Karl and Ali ST4754 : Cheddar Gorge by Steve Daniels ST4754 : Top of Cheddar Gorge by Sarah Charlesworth ST4754 : Looking up (and down into) Cheddar Gorge by Toby ST4654 : Cave, on the side of Cheddar Gorge by Roger Cornfoot

Snow field

A snow field, snowfield or neve is a permanent accumulation of snow and ice, typically found below the snow lineExternal link. Normally the term is applied to mountainousExternal link and glacialExternal link terrain. In glaciologyExternal link, the term refers to areas of permanent snowExternal link cover.
Wikipedia pageExternal link
There are no permanent snow fields in Britain and Ireland. The examples below are snow patches that persist in almost all years. The Wikipedia article Snow patches in ScotlandExternal link discusses locations and persistence.
NN1671 : Waymarked path heading into the mist on Ben Nevis by Peter S NN9498 : Buttresses and gullies above Garbh Choire Mòr by Peter S

Spur (topography)

A spur is a subsidiary summit of a hillExternal link or mountainExternal link. By definition, spurs have low topographic prominenceExternal link, as they are lower than their parent summit and are closely connected to them on the same ridgeline. Examples of spurs include:
Wikipedia pageExternal link

J3326 : Rocky spur on Cove Mountain by Eric Jones NS3582 : Auchendennan Muir by Lairich Rig SD6595 : Spur north of Arant Haw by Ian Taylor NT8810 : Interlocking spurs in valley of Usway Burn by Andrew Curtis SO1628 : Footpath up Mynydd Llangorse by Jeremy Bolwell SS7348 : East Lyn valley by Derek Harper NT9429 : Iron Age hillfort at Glead's Cleugh by Andrew Curtis NT8525 : Almost Alpine! by Andrew Curtis

Strand plain

A strand plain or strandplain is a broad belt of sand along a shorelineExternal link with a surface exhibiting well-defined parallel or semi-parallel sand ridges separated by shallow swales. A strandplain differs from a barrier island in that it lacks either the lagoons or tidal marsh that separate a barrier island from the shoreline to which the strandplain is directly attached. Also, the tidal channels and inlets, which cut through barrier islands, are absent. Strand plains typically are created by the redistribution by waves and longshore currents of coarse sediment on either side of a river mouth. Thus, they are part of one type of wave-dominated deltaExternal link.
Wikipedia pageExternal link

TF5427 : Creeks in The Breast Sand, The Wash by Richard Humphrey

Submergent coastline

Submergent coastlines are stretches along the coast that have been inundated by the sea due to a relative rise in sea levels. This occurs due to either isostacyExternal link or eustacyExternal link. Submergent coastlines are the opposite of emergent coastlinesExternal link which have experienced a relative fall in sea-levels.

Features of a submergent coastline are:
  • drowned river valleys or riasExternal link
  • drowned glaciated valleys or fjordsExternal link.

EstuariesExternal link are often the drowned mouths of rivers.

Wikipedia pageExternal link

Coastline submerging now
TL9511 : Managed Retreat near Tollesbury by Glyn Baker Managed retreat
TM4576 : Bulcamp Marshes by Bob Jones TM5382 : Once many trees lived here by Roger Jones Sea where trees grew
TG3830 : Happisburgh cliffs and beach by Roger Jones TM0614 : Gravel strata in cliffs by Roger Jones TM4548 : Orford Ness (National Trust) & the lighthouse by Stuart Warrington TM4770 : Beware of Cliff Falls at Dunwich! by Richard Slessor Erosion
TG4327 : Sea Palling sea wall by Roger Jones TQ8295 : Crouch river defences and mudflats by Roger Jones Seawalls

Coastline submerged since mankind existed
HY3104 : Looking over Scapa Flow at Houton Bay by Elliott Simpson HY2318 : Coast Protection at Skara Brae by Richard Kay Orkney Islands

SX8357 : River Dart at Sharpham Point by David Hawgood River Dart - image and map
1:50,000 Modern Day Landranger(TM) Map © Crown Copyright
1:50,000 Modern Day Landranger(TM) Map © Crown Copyright

SN0011 : Picton Point by Mike Graham Estuary as ria

NN1250 : Loch Etive by Colin Kinnear NN1144 : Alluvial fan jutting into Loch Etive by Alistair Nixon Loch Etive - images and map
1:50,000 Modern Day Landranger(TM) Map © Crown Copyright
1:50,000 Modern Day Landranger(TM) Map © Crown Copyright

J1813 : Farmland above the shores of Carlingford Lough by Eric Jones C3328 : Lough Swilly from Lisfannan by Rossographer L7665 : Rosroe Quay in Killary Harbour, County Galway by Roger  Kidd

Table (landform)

This landform has numerous names in addition to "table", including:
Wikipedia pageExternal link

NG2547 : Looking from shore of Loch Dunvegan towards MacLeod's Tables by David Gearing

Terrace (geology)

In geologyExternal link, a terrace is a step-like landform. A terrace consists of a flat or gently sloping geomorphic surface, called a tread, that is typically bounded one side by a steeper ascending slope, which called a "riser" or "scarp." The tread and the steeper descending slope (riser or scarp) together constitute the terrace. Terraces can also consist of a tread bounded on all sides by a descending riser or scarp. A narrow terrace is often called a benchExternal link.
Wikipedia pageExternal link

NN3592 : River Roy by Richard Webb NN3592 : Glen Roy by Richard Webb NN3592 : Glacial deposits, Annat by Richard Webb NN3692 : Glen Roy and Carn Dearg by Richard Webb SN8122 : View to Picws Du and Bannau Sir Gaer by Philip Halling


Thalweg (/External linkˈExternal linktExternal linkɑːExternal linklExternal linkvExternal linkɛExternal linkɡExternal link/External link; "valley way") in geographyExternal link and fluvialExternal link geomorphologyExternal link signifies the deepest continuous inline within a valleyExternal link or watercourseExternal link system.
Wikipedia pageExternal link

NJ1265 : Drainage Ditch by Anne Burgess NJ2367 : Drainage Ditch at Windyridge by Anne Burgess NJ4765 : The Main Drain by Anne Burgess

Tidal course

A tidal course is any elongated indentation or valleyExternal link in a wetlandExternal link originated by tidal processes, or having another origin, along which water flows pumped by tidal influence.
Wikipedia pageExternal link

SJ2874 : Tidal gullies in the Burton Marsh by Peter Aikman TG0044 : Late sun on a tidal creek by Pauline E TF5657 : Tidal channel at Gibraltar Point by Oliver Dixon TQ7996 : Creek Junction by Roger Jones TL9304 : Channel through the saltings by Roger Jones TQ8385 : Looking to Leigh Creek by Roger Jones TM3643 : View from Hollesley pumping station by Roger Jones TQ8085 : Towards Hadleigh Ray by Roger Jones NO5027 : Dunes and tidal channel by Richard Webb SD3873 : Tidal channel west of Humphrey Head by Karl and Ali SD3545 : Grange Pool Tidal Channel by Chris Heaton L8323 : Tidal channel, Fornais by Jonathan Wilkins NC0326 : Tidal channel behind Split Rock at Clachtoll by Ulrich Hartmann NM7009 : Tidal Channel between Lunga and Fiola an Droma by Donald MacDonald SD4452 : Bank End Tidal Channel by Chris Heaton SD4552 : Hasty Beck Tidal Channel by Chris Heaton SD4551 : Tidal channel of the River Cocker by Alexander P Kapp SX6947 : Tidal Creek near Aveton Gifford by Tony Atkin TF5825 : Tidal creek in the salt marsh near Ongar Hill by Richard Humphrey TF7944 : Tidal Creek, Brancaster Staithe by Dave Hitchborne

Trough (geology)

In geology, a trough generally refers to a linear structuralExternal link depression that extends laterally over a distance, while being less steep than a trenchExternal link.
Wikipedia pageExternal link

NO5101 : Below the Doocot by Anne Burgess SN7375 : Wind Gap between the Rheidol and the Ystwyth. by Bob Bowyer


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