Greenock Cemetery

Creative Commons License Text by Lairich Rig, September 2011 ; This work is dedicated to the Public Domain.
Images are under a separate Creative Commons Licence.


NS2676 : Greenock Cemetery by Lairich RigNS2676 : Greenock Cemetery by Lairich RigNS2676 : Greenock Cemetery by Lairich RigThree views of the modern part of the cemetery


Note: This articles owes much to old local histories that are now out of copyright; the author is particularly indebted to the Second Series of George Williamson's "Old Greenock" see the ReferencesExternal link and has, for that reason, opted to put the following text into the public domain. However, the accompanying images are not in the public domain, but are licensed under different terms, as explained at the end of the article.

Earlier burial grounds

The Old West Kirkyard

Early burials in the town took place in the Old West Kirkyard. Over the period 1926-28, the Old West Kirk was dismantled, and then rebuilt in its present location.

The history of the Old West Kirk itself is not discussed in this article, but see the leftmost picture in the second row, below, for a summary.

NS2777 : Old West Kirk by Thomas NugentNS2776 : Original burial site of Highland Mary by Thomas NugentNS2777 : Inscription on Old West Kirk by Thomas Nugent(left) The Old West Kirk
(middle) Its previous location
(right) An inscription about its relocation
NS2777 : The Old West Kirk by Lairich RigNS2777 : Behind the Old West Kirk by Lairich RigNS2777 : Old corbel stone by Lairich Rig(left) The Old West Kirk
(middle) Its kirkyard
(right) A corbel stone from the old manse
NS2777 : The gravestone of Alexander Knox by Lairich RigNS2777 : Gravestone of Alexander and John Taylor by Lairich RigNS2777 : The gravestone of John Taylor by Lairich Rig(left) Gravestone of Alexander Knox
(middle) Alexander and John Taylor
(right) John Taylor

The Old West Kirkyard became overcrowded fairly early in its history, and was extended in 1657, when, with the Laird of Greenock's consent, a strip of land, 7 ells in breadth, was added to its western side. In 1721, Sir John Shaw gifted another piece of ground, again to be added to the western side of the kirkyard, taking its total area to a little under one Scots acre.

Nevertheless, by the 1770s, as a result of the increase in population, there was a demand for additional ground. An application was made in 1773 by Bailie Gammell for a further extension to the Kirkyard; however, the feudal superior, Sir Michael Stewart, objected to this proposal, and a lengthy legal dispute followed, which was eventually taken to the House of Lords. A compromise was finally reached in 1786, when Stewart feued, for use as a burial ground, some land elsewhere in Greenock.

Inverkip Street

The land that Stewart agreed to feu to the Magistrates and Council was located beside what is now Inverkip Street: NS27387615. It was described at the time as "being the north-east corner of that enclosure possessed by James Bartholomew, Flesher in Greenock", and it measured 3 roods, 3 falls, and 3 feet. Part of it was to be designated a common burial ground for the poor.

For its first few years, the Inverkip Street Burial Ground would have appeared very flat; apart from the lair markers set into the walls, no upright stones were allowed. The reason given was that they would impede access: in the words of the original Feu Contract, "no head stones were to be erected on the graves or burying-places so as to interrupt the free passage to the ground".

Many of the leading citizens of the day were interred here. Applications for lairs were to be made to Mr Wilson, Depute Treasurer. The first to apply was Bailie John Kippen, whose stone is illustrated below, followed by Bailies Anderson, Fullarton, and Robertson. The novelist John Galt, who was born in Ayrshire, but whose family moved to Greenock when he was young, is also buried here, as is pointed out on a plaque beside the entrance of the burial ground.

NS2776 : Inverkip Street Burial Ground by Lairich RigNS2776 : Inverkip Street graveyard by Thomas NugentNS2776 : Inverkip Street graveyard by Thomas Nugent(left to right) Inverkip Street Burial Ground
NS2776 : Entrance of burial ground by Lairich RigNS2776 : Old graveyard by Thomas NugentNS2776 : Entrance of burial ground: detail by Lairich Rig(left, middle) The entrance
(right) John Galt plaque
NS2776 : Gravestone of John Kippen by Lairich RigNS2776 : Burial place of John Galt by Lairich RigNS2776 : Memorial to William Wilson by Lairich Rig(left) Bailie John Kippen
(middle) John Galt, novelist, and his family
(right) William Wilson, minister
NS2776 : Gravestone of William Davie by Lairich RigNS2776 : Memorial to George Moscrip by Lairich RigNS2776 : Inverkip Street Burial Ground by Lairich Rig(left) William Davie (of Anderston?)
(middle) George Moscrip, minister
(right) North-western corner of the burial ground
NS2776 : Burial place of Gabriel Wood by Lairich RigNS2776 : The Barclay/Cameron Memorial by Lairich RigNS2776 : The Dunlop Memorial by Lairich Rig(left) Gabriel Wood, merchant. Gabriel Wood's Mariners' Home,
pictured later in this article, is named after his son, Sir Gabriel Wood
(middle) Alexander Barclay and John Cameron, brothers-in-law
(right) John Dunlop, Tide Surveyor, and his relations

Because of the growing population of Greenock, the need for further land soon arose.

Duncan Street

In 1816, further ground was feued to the Magistrates and Council by Sir Michael Shaw Stewart. That ground measured 102 falls 24 yards, and adjoined the Inverkip Street Burial Ground on the south-east. However, although it was immediately next to the Inverkip Street Burial Ground, it was separated from it by a wall, and it had its own entrance from Duncan Street: NS27427610.

Later on, Duncan Street was levelled, but the resulting road surface was considerably lower than before. The Duncan Street entrance, now too high above street level for use, was blocked off. To allow continued access to the burial ground, an opening was made in the wall between this ground and the one on Inverkip Street; that opening is still in use. These features are shown below, along with selected memorials.

NS2776 : Duncan Street Burial Ground by Lairich RigNS2776 : Inverkip Street graveyard by Thomas NugentNS2776 : Inverkip Street graveyard by Thomas Nugent(left to right) Duncan Street Burial Ground
NS2776 : Inverkip Street graveyard by Thomas NugentNS2776 : Inverkip Street graveyard by Thomas NugentNS2776 : Memorial to Angus McBean by Lairich Rig(left) The original entrance from Duncan Street was blocked off after the street was levelled
(middle) An opening was then made to the adjoining Inverkip Street Burial Ground
(right) Angus MacBean, minister
NS2776 : Gravestone of John Fleming by Lairich RigNS2776 : The Farquhar/McKelvie Memorial by Lairich RigNS2776 : Carved stone head by Lairich Rig(left) John Fleming, artist
(middle) Farquhar/McKelvie Memorial
(right) Detail from the same memorial
NS2776 : Duncan Street Burial Ground by Lairich RigNS2776 : Inverkip Street graveyard by Thomas NugentNS2776 : Inverkip Street graveyard by Thomas Nugent(left) Ornate memorials on the south-western wall
(middle) Thomas Shaw of the Old Sugar House
(right) John Graham, shipmaster
NS2776 : Inverkip Street graveyard by Thomas NugentNS2776 : Inverkip Street graveyard by Thomas NugentNS2776 : Inverkip Street graveyard by Thomas Nugent(left) The family of John Henry, candlemaker
(middle) Robert Baird, merchant
(right) North-eastern part of the burial ground

The Duncan Street burial ground was heavily used when Greenock experienced an outbreak of cholera in 1832. Over a thousand burials of cholera patients took place in that year; the resulting mound took a long time to subside. This was one of the factors that led to this new burial ground, in turn, becoming overcrowded; in 1859, it was closed up, under the terms of the Burial Grounds (Scotland) Act, 1855, being seen by that time as a health hazard and "offensive to decency". The pressing need for additional space remained.

Initiatives

Some years before the closure of the Inverkip and Duncan Street burial ground, the urgent need for additional land had been recognised, and not only by local people. In February of 1845, the prospectus of a "Greenock Cemetery Company" was published. The directors of this company were evidently speculators from outwith the Greenock area. Although the need for new space was acknowledged, it was considered distasteful that a local problem of this nature was seen as an opportunity for commercial speculation by people from other areas. A great deal of resentment arose towards the company, which ultimately failed.

Shortly thereafter, measures were being taken locally to address the need, with the initiative being taken by Bailie John Gray. On the 26th of December, 1845, he read a report to Greenock's town council and water trustees. (In addition to his role as a town councillor, John Gray was a senior partner in the firm of Gray & Roxburgh's, shipping agents; in 1842, a wooden vessel called "John Gray" was built for the firm by Thomson & Spiers of Cartsdyke).

The report read by Gray was on the state of the town's burial grounds. It was written by Mr Stewart MurrayExternal link, who was born in 1792 in Aberdeenshire; he was the first person to hold the post of Curator of Glasgow's Botanic Gardens, a role to which he was appointed in 1817. He was involved in laying out Paisley's Woodside CemeteryExternal link (1845), Dumbarton CemeteryExternal link (1854), Glasgow's Sighthill CemeteryExternal link (1840), and the Glasgow NecropolisExternal link (1833). (Note that Dumbarton Cemetery is the subject of an articleExternal link of its own.)

NS4763 : Martyrs' Monument, Woodside Cemetery by Lairich RigNS4075 : Dumbarton Cemetery entrance by Lairich RigNS6067 : Sighthill Cemetery by Lairich RigNS6065 : Glasgow Necropolis by Lairich Rig
Woodside CemeteryExternal linkDumbarton CemeteryExternal linkSighthill CemeteryExternal linkGlasgow NecropolisExternal link

The report is set out in detail in an appendix to the Second Series of George Williamson's "Old Greenock" (see ReferencesExternal link). It called for necessary maintenance to be carried out on the Inverkip and Duncan Street sites (their areas were given as 123 falls and 102 falls, respectively). One objection to their continued use was the fact that these grounds were now surrounded by buildings, and the site was considered a health hazard to their inhabitants. Another was the overcrowding of the site, best seen by the fact that the numerous interments had raised the ground three or four feet above its original level (see above, on the cholera outbreak of 1832).

Prospective sites

Primarily, Stewart Murray's report pointed to the absolute necessity of procuring new ground for burials. The prospective sites that he examined included the Mount, and Prospect Hill.

The first of these sites was Crow Mount, simply called the Mount in popular usage (and in Mr Murray's report). This circular mound was centred on c. NS27717582 (which is now in Mearns Terrace). An advantage of this location was that it was already wooded (the trees attracted crows, a fact that probably accounts for the site's name). A disadvantage was that it was rather close to the built-up parts of the town.

The second site, Prospect Hill, was not far to the west of the Mount. Here, Andrew Lindsay of the Cotton Mill Company had built a villa called Prospecthill House; now long gone, the villa was located at c. NS27367564, near what is now the junction of Prospecthill Street (named after the villa) and Mill Street.

A disadvantage of the Prospect Hill site was that it was very close to the town's water filters. Old OS maps show "Shaw's Water Filters" at c. NS27397574 (at the time of writing, the outline of these structures is still clearly discernible on satellite imagery, in a grassy area just to the south-west of the junction of Dempster Street and Togo Place). Prospecthill House was only about 100 metres to the SSW of the water filters.

Another site, the one that appeared to be most suitable, was "bounded by the Bow Farm on the west and the Innerkip Road on the south" (Innerkip Road: earlier spelling for present-day Inverkip Road). Plans to create a new cemetery on that site proved to be acceptable to the council.

Greenock Cemetery

The land was procured from Sir Michael Robert Shaw Stewart, 7th Baronet (who also provided the land for Sir Gabriel Wood's Mariners' Home, which is illustrated below; he was a descendant of the Sir Michael Stewart who objected to the proposed extension of the Old West Kirkyard in the eighteenth century).

NS2677 : Sir Gabriel Wood's Mariners' Home by Lairich RigNS2677 : Sir Gabriel Woods Mariner's Home by Thomas NugentNS2677 : Sir Gabriel Woods Mariner's Home by Thomas Nugent(left)(right) Gabriel Wood's Mariners' Home

By the autumn of 1846, the new cemetery had been laid out, under the superintendence of Mr Murray. In a letter dated 5th October, 1846, Murray says that the Cemetery "has been completed to my entire satisfaction". Some additions were made to the original plan: a few acres of additional ground had been acquired "to secure the summit of the hill, thereby allowing a carriage drive all around"; in addition, the boundary wall, which was originally to have been made of wood, was built of stone instead (the additional expense incurred would be offset, in time, by the higher value of tombs alongside the wall).

Early newspaper reports referred to the new cemetery as "the Necropolis". Although the term was considered unobjectionable elsewhere, Sir Michael Robert Shaw Stewart and his wife, Lady Octavia, objected to what they felt was a "heathen" title; their view was that it did not sufficiently reflect the Christian hope of the resurrection. The town council therefore decided that the new burial ground would simply be called the Cemetery.

In 1848, not long after Greenock Cemetery came into use, its superintendent was Peter Clark, a former gardener to John Gray.

The 31 hectares (about 12 acres) of land occupied by the cemetery are set on what had formerly been known as the Bow Hill. The main entrance of the cemetery is located beside what was formerly the site of Brachelston Toll; nearby, beside a burn, was Brachelston Mill.

A crematorium is located within the grounds of the cemetery. There is also a small building called the Ivy House, which was moved here from the Wellpark in 1852.

NS2676 : Greenock Crematorium by BilboNS2676 : Greenock Crematorium by Texas Radio and The Big BeatNS2676 : The Ivy House, Greenock Cemetery by Lairich Rig(left, middle) Greenock Crematorium
(right) The Ivy House, a former doocot

Some memorials

The selection of memorials shown below is drawn from the following collection of pictures (a collection to which other contributors can add): photographs of Greenock CemeteryExternal link. The "Greenock Cemetery Walks" booklet, listed in the ReferencesExternal link section below, proved to be very useful in locating sites of interest, and it provides further details about them. Information about each of the memorials shown below can also be found by clicking on their individual photographs.

First of all, it is worth noting that when the Old West Kirk was moved to its present site, many of the ancient gravestones from the Old West Kirkyard were transferred to a plot within Greenock Cemetery:

NS2676 : Memorials from the Old West Kirk by Lairich RigNS2676 : Gravestones from the Old West Kirk by Lairich Rig(left) Enclosure containing the old gravestones
(right) One of the old gravestones

One of the best-known memorials in the cemetery is that of Highland Mary, whose remains were likewise moved here from the Old West Kirkyard. Next to Highland Mary's Memorial is the Watt Cairn, commemorating the engineer James Watt. Although the memorial is interesting in itself, its original conception was far grander (see the description accompanying the photograph):

NS2676 : Highland Mary Monument by Lairich RigNS2676 : Site of the Highland Mary Monument by Lairich RigNS2776 : Original burial site of Highland Mary by Thomas Nugent(left) Highland Mary Monument
(middle) The monument's setting
(right) Her original burial place
NS2676 : Old stone beside the Highland Mary Monument by Lairich RigNS2676 : Old stone beside the Highland Mary Monument by Lairich RigNS2676 : The Watt Cairn by Lairich Rig(left) Her remains were re-interred here in 1920
(middle) Highland Mary's relatives
(right) The Watt Cairn

Three plots within the cemetery were set aside for Sir Gabriel Wood's Mariners' Home (described earlier in this article). Adam MacKay, who was House Governor of the Home for about twenty years, is also buried in the cemetery:

NS2676 : Burial plot for the Mariners' Home by Lairich RigNS2676 : Burial plot for the Mariners' Home by Lairich RigNS2676 : Memorial to Adam McKay by Lairich Rig(left) One of the plots
(middle) Another of the plots
(right) Adam MacKay

The high ground of the cemetery is occupied by a memorial to Robert Wallace of Kelly, Greenock's first Member of Parliament (1832-45), who played an important role in bringing about reform of the postal service. Robert Baine was Greenock's first Provost (1833-34). Walter Baine was another of the town's early Provosts (1840-44), and he succeeded Wallace as MP for Greenock (1845-47):

NS2676 : Memorial to Robert Wallace by Lairich RigNS2676 : Memorial to Robert Baine by Lairich RigNS2676 : Memorial to Walter Baine (detail) by Lairich Rig(left) Robert Wallace
(middle) Robert Baine
(right) Walter Baine

The Scott family were very prominent in the local shipbuilding industry. Walter Robert Kinipple carried out several important engineering works at Greenock Harbour. The timber merchant James McLean founded the McLean Museum and Art GalleryExternal link:

NS2676 : The Scott family burial ground by Lairich RigNS2676 : The Kinipple family memorial by Lairich RigNS2676 : Memorial to James McLean by Lairich Rig(left) Scott family burial ground
(middle) Kinipple family memorial
(right) James McLean

Captain Donald Brotchie was active in the Temperance Movement, and was a hardworking seamen's missionary. Thomas Fairrie did much for the cause of education in Greenock. Abram Lyle, shipowner and sugar refiner, was Provost of Greenock from 1876-79, and is remembered in the names of Lyle Road and the Lyle Fountain:

NS2676 : Donald Brotchie Memorial (detail) by Lairich RigNS2676 : Memorial to Thomas Fairrie by Lairich RigNS2676 : Memorial to Abram Lyle by Lairich Rig(left) Captain Donald Brotchie
(middle) Thomas Fairrie
(right) Abram Lyle

The only mausoleum in the cemetery is that of Dame Frances Caroline Cameron. The brief naval career of Neil Dougall ended when he was badly injured in an accidental explosion, but he later prospered as a teacher and composer of music. The design of George Maskell's memorial reflects his involvement with the world of theatre:

NS2676 : Mausoleum for Dame Frances Caroline Cameron by Lairich RigNS2676 : Memorial to Neil Dougall by Lairich RigNS2676 : Memorial to George Maskell (detail) by Lairich Rig(left) Dame Frances Caroline Cameron
(middle) Neil Dougall
(right) George Maskell

Among those commemorated by the Carmichael family memorial is Sir Duncan Carmichael, a shipping agent and a director of P&O. The memorial to John Barr Cumming, Lloyds Surveyor of Shipping, features allegorical figures representing his trade; it was carved by local sculptor Charles Stevenson:

NS2676 : Memorial to Sir Duncan Carmichael by Lairich RigNS2676 : Memorial to John Barr Cumming (detail) by Lairich Rig(left) Sir Duncan Carmichael
(right) John Barr Cumming

The obelisk commemorating the joiner and builder James Black is also richly decorated. Prominent among those commemorated by the Bowers family memorial is Henry Robertson Bowers, who was much better known by his nickname, Birdie Bowers. The house where he was bornExternal link in Greenock is marked by a plaqueExternal link. He accompanied Captain Robert Scott on his ill-fated expedition to the South Pole, and he was one of only two men who were with Scott at the end:

NS2676 : Memorial to James Black by Lairich RigNS2676 : The Bowers family memorial by Lairich Rig(left) James Black
(right) Henry Robertson Bowers

Memorials with Gothic details mark the burial place of Stewart and Robert Neill, and of the family of Peter Warden. A Celtic cross commemorates James Morton (Provost of Greenock from 1868-71) and his family:

NS2676 : The Neill Memorial by Lairich RigNS2676 : The Warden Memorial by Lairich RigNS2676 : Memorial to Provost Morton by Lairich Rig(left) The Neill Memorial
(middle) The Warden Memorial
(right) Provost Morton

A burial ground was purchased here for the Working Boys' Home. A sarcophagus commemorates a doctor, Walter Washington Buchanan, whose family were close to that of General (and future President) George Washington. A Dumbarton steam-boat captain, John Lang, who was buried at DumbartonExternal link, is the first person named in the inscription of a memorial that primarily commemorates his wife's family, the MacCallums, who were iron merchants here in Greenock:

NS2676 : Burial place for Working Boys' Home by Lairich RigNS2676 : Memorial to Walter Washington Buchanan by Lairich RigNS2676 : The Lang/MacCallum Memorial by Lairich Rig(left) For the Working Boys' Home
(middle) Walter Washington Buchanan, M.D.
(right) Lang/MacCallum Memorial

Near the enclosure that contains stones from the original site of the Old West Kirk (see above), there is a memorial for sailors and soldiers who died in the First World War. Another memorial, beside the main driveway leading into the cemetery, commemorates the citizens of Greenock who died during the air raids on the town (including the Greenock Blitz of May, 1941):

NS2676 : War Memorial in Greenock Cemetery by Lairich RigNS2676 : Memorial for those killed in the Greenock air raids by Lairich RigNS2676 : Memorial for those killed in the Greenock air raids by Lairich Rig(left) For the sailors and soldiers of the First World War
(middle) For those killed in the air raids on Greenock
(right) Another view of the memorial

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