Creating, formatting and editing articles

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This article shows features available for formatting articles, inserting images, links, tables, and page breaks. Directly following the example of each feature is the code needed to use it when editing an article. There is a separate article for inserting maps in articlesExternal link

This is about the publicly viewable Articles sectionExternal link.

There is a template for creating an article about a placeExternal link as a quick way to start.

Creating and editing articles

Click "Create an article" on Articles listExternal link. This gives a form with boxes:
The title is used to generate the web address of the article, e.g. "Glasgow Parks" gets an URL of www. geograph.org.uk/article/Glasgow-ParksExternal link. The contributor can change the title later, but should not change the URL once the article is published.

"Licence" has four options:
Clicking "Save changes" does not automatically change the licence, it can be left on "(Temporarily) Not Published" while the article is developed. The article can then be seen by the author and by moderators, but not by other contributors or the public. When changed to one of the other licences, the article is brought to the attention of moderators. A moderator can approve, or send an email to the author suggesting changes, or can make edits which would usually be to correct obvious typos.

When you want the article to be seen publicly, choose one of the other options. For almost all Geograph articles this is Creative Commons Share-alike licenceExternal link. This is the same licence which applies to photographs and their description on Geograph, allowing others to copy, distribute, and transmit part or all of the work, also to adapt it, so long as the author is acknowledged.

The heading of the article will then include a statement like:
Text Copyright June 2010, David Hawgood; licensed for re-use under a Creative Commons Licence.
Images also under a similar Creative Commons Licence.

The foot of the article will have a statement like:
Images used on this page, Copyright ; licensed for re-use under a Creative Commons Licence. LinkExternal link


If Public Domain is chosen anyone can use the text of the article in any way, without acknowledgment.

If Copyright is chosen others cannot copy or republish in original or amended form without the author's permission. This would normally only be chosen if you have permission to copy material and publish it in an article, but do not have permission to publish it under Creative Commons licence.

These settings are about the legal status of the text of the article, not about whether other contributors can change the text of the article in Geograph.



Publish Date is initially set to the date of first creation, if the article remains unpublished for some time the author can amend it to the date when the article is first made available to the public, but it should not be changed if the article is edited later.

The category box has a pull-down list of about thirty categories plus provision to ask for a new one. For example category "Exploring the Community" is used for articles about a particular place or route or river, etc.

"Relevant grid square" is used to:
  1. show a link at the bottom of the article to the 'Location' grid square page. and
  2. Plot the location in the RSS feed (for anyone with a compatible RSS reader).

"Short Description" is added to the "Meta" lines in the head section of the web page. It is shown when the mouse is moved over the name in a list of articles, and is used by search engines, but is not visible on the displayed page of the article.

"Content" is for the text of the article with links to images, maps, etc.

After clicking "Save changes" the article appears as it will be displayed to the public - with the addition of links at the top of the article, visible to author and moderators, for "Edit this article" "Article History" and "Article Listing". There is also now a box for the URL generated from the initial title - the URL should not be changed even if the title is changed.

Collaborative editing

An article can be set so that it can be edited by any registered user of Geograph. For an example see Canals articleExternal link. To request this, send an email to a moderator. (That may not be the correct way to do it - to be advised).

Formatting

Headings

[h2]Headings[/h2]

Sub heading

[h3]Sub heading[/h3]

Sub sub heading

[h4]Sub sub heading[/h4]


Note that h2, h3 and h4 headings are put into a contents list, top right of the article and of each page.
Note also that [h1] and [h5] are not actioned as headings, and that h2 h3 h4 have to be lower case h to be actioned.


Text formatting

Appearance of text

Text and bold text and italics and big text and small text
Text and [b]bold text[/b] and [i]italics[/i] and [big]big text[/big] and [small]small text[/small]

Monospaced text

iiiii
MMMMM
12345


[tt]iiiii
MMMMM
12345[/tt]


Bullets


Start each bullet line with an asterisk -
* Item one
* Item two
* Item three and if you keep on adding text and adding text and adding text and adding text and adding text and adding text and adding text and adding text this is how it looks.

Please note that due to a peculiarity if you want a blank line before a bullet line you must put a space in the blank line.


Numbered list

Start each line with a hash (#) - must have a space after it -
  1. Item one
  2. Item two
  3. Item three and if you keep on adding text and adding text and adding text and adding text and adding text and adding text and adding text and adding text this is how it looks.

# Item one
# Item two
# Item three and if you keep on adding text and adding text and adding text and adding text and adding text and adding text and adding text and adding text this is how it looks.


To put an asterisk or hash at the beginning of a line without making it a bullet, put a space before the asterisk or hash symbol. Or for a hash, make sure there is no space immediately after it.


Horizontal rule



[hr/]

Images

Limit on images or maps per page

The recommended limits on numbers of images and maps apply per page, not per article, so page breaks can be used to allow large numbers of them. There can be tens of pages within an article.
Aim for no more than 100 (small) thumbnails per page, absolute maximum 200. Aim for at most 50 of the big thumbnails, 75 absolute maximum per page. For maps the maximum should be 10 (or maybe 15) large maps, 50 small maps. You can use an appropriate mixture, e.g 5 large maps and 25 small thumbnails.

Statistics within article

There is a basic statistics page which shows page counts of items including pages, characters, lines, words (approximate), various sizes of images and maps.
There are warnings if the numbers on a page seem too high (eg over 100 thumbnails).
It also uses a 'combined' calculation, if it thinks the combination is too much. eg 80 thumbnails, + 30 maps. (even if each on own would be ok)

There are 'pink' soft notices (which can be ignored but please do consider doing something about them), and red 'hard' warnings - which shouldn't be ignored, probably mean that the content is being cutoff already.

To do it, stats.php?page= is inserted before the last part of the URL.
Example for this article:
http://www.geograph.org.uk/article/Help_on_formatting_of_articlesExternal link
http://www.geograph.org.uk/article/stats.php?page=Help_on_formatting_of_articlesExternal link

Example for article with maps:
http://www.geograph.org.uk/article/stats.php?page=Maps-in-articlesExternal link

Geograph photographs and their titles

TQ1876 : Kew Gardens Temperate House from the Pagoda by David Hawgood
TQ1876 : Kew Gardens Temperate House from the Pagoda

[[[227173]]]
[[227173]]

You can display an image with the description supplied by the contributor:

NY8540 : Copthill Quarry by Andrew Curtis
Disused and flooded quarry on the outcrop of the whin sill at Cowshill. The quarry was opened up in 1895 by Octavius Monkhouse who was the Innkeeper at the nearby Cowshill Inn and son of the local minister. The quarry is one of two whinstone quarries in Weardale, the other is at Stanhope, and rock was carted from the quarry to Wearhead railway station and from there down the dale for use in construction projects.
About 50 men worked the quarry in the early days and as it developed permission was obtained to demolish first the vicarage and then the church itself. Now only the graveyard remains, above the quarry, north west of Copthill Farm.
By 1926 the quarry was in financial difficulties and closed down but a group of local men formed the Cowshill Quarry Company and this new company took over and continued the work up until final closure in 1943.
http://www.aditnow.co.uk/mines/Copt-Hill-Whinstone-Quarry/
by Andrew Curtis


[image id=1562709 text={description}]

You can also display an image in a box with text you have written for the article:
TQ1876 : Kew Gardens Temperate House from the Pagoda by David Hawgood
View of the Temperate House at Kew Gardens from the top of the pagoda. The public cannot normally climb the pagoda, but it was opened for a few months in summer 2006


[image id=227173 text=View of the Temperate House at Kew Gardens from the top of the pagoda. The public cannot normally climb the pagoda, but it was opened for a few months in summer 2006]

You can insert into text a list of contributors of photographs used in the article.

Photos in this article are by David Hawgood, canalandriversidepubs co uk, David Dixon, Oliver Hunter, nick macneill, M J Richardson, Michael Westley, John Fielding, Andrew Curtis, E Gammie, David P Howard, David Martin, David Roberts and nairnbairn.
Photos in this article are by [imageCredits].

Note that there is a list of photographers generated automatically at the bottom of the article with a copyright notice and reference to the Creative Commons Licence.

Multiple images from lists and searches


mooflow - a way to display a set of thumbnails

[mooflow=3888400]

External images



Peacock in Sri Lanka, copyright David Hawgood.
[img=http://www.hawgood.co.uk/photo/SriLanka/wild123t.jpg]

The example above has no Alt text (which displays if images are turned off), which also acts in most browsers as a tool tip (which displays as the mouse is moved over the image). This is added as text after the image address in the example below. It is good practice to add such a text.
 Peacock in Sri Lanka, copyright David Hawgood
Peacock in Sri Lanka, copyright David Hawgood.
[img=http://www.hawgood.co.uk/photo/SriLanka/wild123t.jpg Peacock in Sri Lanka, copyright David Hawgood]

If including an external image to display in an article you should make sure you have permission from the owner of the site referenced; the image used here is on the site of the original author of this article, David Hawgood.

Note that clicking the image does not link to the image on its external site. See next section for linking to the external site, either to the image or to the webpage on which it is held.

Fading one image into another

A geograph image can be displayed with a slider which fades it into another geograph image, or an external image. This facility can be used for historical or seasonal comparison where there are several photos of the same scene.
For method and examples see LinkExternal link Fade Demo Article.
For more than two images, use slide show mode, also shown in that article.
Note that there is permission to use and recreate Francis Frith images, as shown in the demo article.

Links

Link external to Geograph

Peacock in Uda Walawe, Sri LankaExternal link
[url=http://www.hawgood.co.uk/photo/SriLanka/peacock.htm]Peacock in Uda Walawe, Sri Lanka[/url]

Peacock in Sri Lanka, see photo LinkExternal link
Peacock in Sri Lanka, see photo http://www.hawgood.co.uk/photo/SriLanka/peacock.htmExternal link

The link can be to an image:
link to external image of peacockExternal link
[url=http://www.hawgood.co.uk/photo/SriLanka/wild123t.jpg]link to external image of peacock[/url]

An internet link, starting http:// or www, appears with the word "Link"

Grid reference links within geograph


SD2605 Formby Point SD2605

Letters and numbers which can be a grid reference are interpreted as such, and are made into a link to the Geograph information for the relevant grid square.

Watch out for this if you happen to want to refer to an A or B road which has a 4 digit number, or a motorway with a 2-digit number.
B9212 Lough Barra B9212
A4000 (all at sea) A4000
To stop it happening put an exclamation mark before the grid reference:
!SD2605 !B9212 !A4000
The letters must be upper case to be treated as grid references - sd2605 b9212 a4000 are not treated as grid references.

Links within articles

The table of contents at the top right of an article uses internal links, using heading texts (lower case) as links.
Go to section with heading TableExternal link
[url=http://www.geograph.org.uk/article/Help_on_formatting_of_articles#table]Go to section with heading Table[/url]
Note that some other changes are made in converting heading text to a link, so it is best to use the link from the list top right of the article.
Note also that in multi-page articles the page number is included in the link.
page break exampleExternal link
[url=http://www.geograph.org.uk/article/Help_on_formatting_of_articles/2#page-break-example]page break example[/url]

You can also link to a heading by using its number in sequence from zero, but be aware that if a heading is inserted, the numbers of all headings further down the article are changed.
Return to first headingExternal link
[url=http://www.geograph.org.uk/article/Help_on_formatting_of_articles#p0]Return to first heading[/url]

Single page article

Go to top of page
[url=#top]Go to top of page[/url]

link to {heading text} (for example, link is to heading Table)
[url=#table]link to heading Table[/url]

Multi-page article


One way to return to top of current article is to put in the full external link to the article:
Return to top of articleExternal link
[url=http://www.geograph.org.uk/article/Help_on_formatting_of_articles]Return to top of article[/url]

Link to top of this page
[url=#top]Link to top of this page[/url]

Go to top of page 2External link (2 is used for example, use other numbers as appropriate)
[url=http://www.geograph.org.uk/article/Help_on_formatting_of_articles/2#top]Go to top of page 2[/url]

link to heading on this page
[url=#table]link to heading on this page[/url]

Link to heading on page 2External link (example links to heading "Page break example" on page 2)
[url=http://www.geograph.org.uk/article/Help_on_formatting_of_articles/2#page-break-example]Link to heading on page 2[/url]

Position of text after image - float

TQ1876 : Kew Gardens Temperate House from the Pagoda by David Hawgood Without float codes, text starts after bottom right of image, and if there is enough text it continues below the image after reaching the right margin.
[[[227173]]] Without float codes, text starts after bottom right of image, and if there is enough text it continues below the image after reaching the right margin.

TQ1876 : Kew Gardens Temperate House from the Pagoda by David Hawgood
With float codes, text starts after top right of image, for several lines if there is enough text to fill up the text beyond one line,

a break code makes it continue below the image.
[float][[[227173]]][/float] With float codes, text starts after top right of image, for several lines if there is enough text to fill up the text beyond one line, [br/] a break code makes it continue below the image.

The [float] [/float] pair are around the code which calls the image. The [br/] is only needed to make the text continue below the image.

Hiding and revealing text

This is used for quiz answers and hints. To reveal, select the hidden text. In the example it is between the {} braces, but you can use any visible characters to show the user what to select.
Answer:{Hidden text}
Answer:{[reveal]Hidden text[/reveal]}




Table

heading 1heading 2heading 3
cell 1cell 2cell 3
cell 4cell 5cell 6


--------------------------------
* | heading 1 | heading 2 | heading 3 |
| cell 1 | cell 2 | cell 3 |
| cell 4 | cell 5 | cell 6 |
--------------------------------


The number of dashes starting/ending the table is not critical, but needs at least 7.
The spaces either side of the middle | are required.
Note that clicking on a heading sorts on that column - and clicking again reverses the order.
The number of columns and rows is effectively unlimited, but each row needs the same number of columns.
The * on the first row makes it a heading.
An empty cell should contain at least two spaces.

Leave out * before first line to stop it being a heading, this also removes lines. This can be convenient for layout.
TQ1876 : Kew Gardens Temperate House from the Pagoda by David Hawgoodcolumn 2column 3
NY8540 : Copthill Quarry by Andrew Curtiscell 2cell 3


--------------------------------
| [[[227173]]] | column 2 | column 3 |
| [[[1562709]]] | cell 2 | cell 3 |

--------------------------------

For example of use see Avon Ystwyth articleExternal link



Maps

Sections of 1:50,000 Ordnance Survey maps can be displayed. The way of doing this is now in a separate article Maps in articlesExternal link

YouTube video

You can embed a (public) YouTube video. With:
[youtube=fOA4sMShbGs]
For the video at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fOA4sMShbGsExternal link



Tags

You can display a sample of thumbnails of Geograph images with a particular tag, limiting the display by maximum number. The default is a sample of four. You can also select those within a myriad (100x100 km), hectad (10x10 km) or grid square.

The general syntax is [tag=....] where can pick any tag - with spaces and/or a prefix of course.
[tag=canals] - displays the default sample of four
Tag:canals (124 images)
SJ6889 : Manchester Ship Canal by John Fielding
SP3782 : The Boat Inn Pub, Coventry by canalandriversidepubs co uk
SD7807 : Bury & Bolton Canal by David Dixon
SP0585 : Canal and railway near Church Road, Edgbaston by Michael Westley


To see more of them, click the name of the tag.

Can also [tag=.... images=5] to choose a maximum number of images to show (upto 40) - or even suppress images altogether.
[tag=canals images=12] (choose how many images - at most - may still be less)
Tag:canals (124 images)
SJ6889 : Manchester Ship Canal by John Fielding
SP3295 : British Waterways' Hartshill Yard by David Martin
SO3106 : 'Gilwern Princess' in the Boatyard by David Roberts
SP3983 : The Rose and Castle Pub, Ansty by canalandriversidepubs co uk
SP3684 : The Greyhound Pub, Sutton Stop by canalandriversidepubs co uk
SP3782 : The Boat Inn Pub, Coventry by canalandriversidepubs co uk
SD7807 : Residential development (1970s) by David Dixon
SD7807 : Bury & Bolton Canal by David Dixon
NH3303 : Bridge of Oich - the suspension bridge by nairnbairn
SP0585 : Canal and railway near Church Road, Edgbaston by Michael Westley
SP7448 : Old A508 road bridge over River Tove drainage channel by Oliver Hunter
SP7448 : Old A508 road bridge over the River Tove by Oliver Hunter



And [tag=.... gr=SH64 images=5] to show images in that location. Works with myriad (e.g. SH), hectad (e.g. SH61) and grid-square references (e.g. SH6154). (note the count is still national, even if the thumbnails are local)
[tag=top:Uplands gr=SH images=6]
Tag:top:Uplands (129197 images)
SH5958 : Farm road at Nant Peris, Snowdonia by nick macneill
SH7109 : St. Mary's, Tal-y-llyn, Gwynedd by nick macneill
SH6054 : View NNW from Snowdon towards Llanberis by David P Howard
SH5557 : Cwm Dwythwch - 1960 by M J Richardson
SH6154 : Y Lliwedd from Snowdon - 1960 by M J Richardson
SH6315 : Cattle on Salt Rock, Mawddach estuary by E Gammie


Page breaks

Before proceeding to the explanation on the next page, note the link below and to the right "Next page: multi-page articles"

Creative Commons Licence [Some Rights Reserved]   Text © Copyright July 2008, David Hawgood; licensed for reuse under a Creative Commons Licence.
With contributions by Barry Hunter and Peter Facey. (details)
KML

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