St Andrew's Hospital cemetery Memorial Gardens

Text © Copyright Evelyn Simak, January 2018
Images are under a separate Creative Commons Licence.

TG2809 : St Andrew's hospital - cemetery by Evelyn Simak ... OS map 1905 -->  Hospital cemetery 1905

For detailed information about St Andrew's Hospital see --> LinkExternal link

Throughout its existence the asylum appears to have been struggling to find sufficient space not only for accommodating its patients but also for burying its dead. After its first burial ground (consecrated on 4 August 1815 by Henry Bathurst, Bishop of Norwich) was full to capacity it was decided to extend it further eastwards. The extension was consecrated, on 21 March 1942, by Edward Stanley, Bishop of Norwich. A total of 683 asylum patients are buried, all of them anonymously, within the asylum's walls. In 1859, the asylum paid half of the purchase price for two acres of land on the edge of Thorpe next Norwich, as the village was then known, for use as a burial ground and from the summer of 1859 onwards the asylum's dead were buried there. George Willgress from Runham, aged 54, was the first to be buried in the new cemetery on 20 June 1859, and William Wenn from Worstead, aged 53, was the last, on 20 June 1903. From 1859 until 1903, a total 1,324 patients were buried there, each in a single grave (NRO ref SAH 233). The use of the cemetery was discontinued when the hospital's final burial ground was opened in the summer of 1903.

New echelon blocks had recently been added to the existing Annexe on Northside and a mortuary and viewing room had also been constructed on the site, when the hospital opened a new cemetery about 400 yards further to the west on a plot of agricultural land situated immediately adjacent to what was then Plumstead Road (this road was later re-named Green Lane and today no longer exists due to having been built over when the Broadland Business Park was constructed). The plot formed part of several parcels of land, including cottage gardens and a marl pit, which had been purchased for 2,000 from the Earl of Rosebery several years earlier and was located in the parish of Postwick. The size of the cemetery is given as 3 roods and 17 perches (3,500 square metres approx) and it said that its approach from the road was through a pair of handsome oak gates. The burial ground was consecrated on Friday the 26th June 1903 by the then Bishop of Norwich, John Sheepshanks, (an explorer who travelled the world and the father of no fewer than 17 children).

TG2809 : St Andrew's hospital - cemetery by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : St Andrew's hospital - cemetery by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : Memorial in disused cemetery by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : St Andrew's hospital - cemetery by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : Memorial in disused cemetery (commemorative plaque) by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : Memorial in disused cemetery by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : St Andrew's hospital - cemetery by Evelyn Simak

A small mortuary chapel had been built at its centre. It was constructed by Messrs Youngs from designs drawn by Edward Boardman, diocesan and county surveyor. It has long since been demolished and there would not seem to be any photographs or illustrations of it, but thanks to an article in the Eastern Daily Press, published on the occasion of the cemetery's consecration, there is at least a detailed description of the building. "It is a Gothic structure of red brick, with Cossey brick dressings and Broseley tiles. [Cossey bricks were made at the Costessey (pronounced 'Cossey') brickyard, 5 miles west of Norwich, producers of a range of ornamental bricks referred to as 'Cosseyware'.] The lights are filled with Cathedral glass and there is an open timber roof. There are two vestries at the west end. The seating arrangements are like those of a college chapel, with returned seats. The fittings and the seats are all of pitch pine, and there is a holy table. The flooring is of wood blocks and tiles."

A hand-drawn plan (anonymous but annotated "done 1973") held by the Norfolk Record Office (NRO), where it can be found inserted as a loose sheet in front of the Register of Burials in the Cemetery of the Asylum in the County of Norfolk, January 1908-October 1966 (NRO ref SAH 234), shows the locations of the 217 graves marked on it. It does not show the chapel, suggesting that it had been demolished by then. The plan depicted here is an exact replica of the hand-drawn original, with the graves of three Polish nationals highlighted and their names added by this author.
 SAH4  St Andrew's Hospital cemetery plan of graves

TG2809 : Unmarked graves by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : Unmarked graves by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : Unmarked graves by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : St Andrew's hospital - cemetery by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : St Andrew's hospital - cemetery by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : Graves in disused cemetery by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : St Andrew's hospital - cemetery by Evelyn Simak

Records of the interments, numbering from #1 up to #216A/B, can be found in SAH 233 (mentioned above) starting on page 70. 81-year old Robert Ambrose from the Thetford workhouse was the first to be buried, on 9 July 1903, as the sole occupant of grave #1 in the newly opened cemetery, followed by 50-year old Hannah Howes from Wiggenhall St Peter on 13 July 1903, in grave #2A (the A indicates that this grave contains two bodies, the other being #2B, Mary Boon from Hethersett, on 20 July 1903). The great majority of graves, in fact, contain two bodies, no doubt to save space, with grave #126B being the last entry in this register. Entries are continued in the consecutive register (starting with #127A on 3 January 1908). This register has only recently been opened to the public, the reason being that access to patient records not giving medical information, including burial records, is restricted for 100 years. (Access to patient case papers and medical records relating to adults is restricted for 115 years after the last date in the file.)

No burials took place between 16 April 1915 (Dorothy Noble from Stoke Ferry, aged 82, grave #324A) and 31 January 1920 (Mary Ann Gaze from Stalham, aged 69, buried in the adjacent grave, #325A). This gap is due to the fact that the hospital was a war hospital during WW1, and that the regular patients had been moved to other institutions during this time. The bodies of deceased military patients are commonly returned to their families for burial. At the very end of the register and after a gap of many empty pages there are two records of presumably civilian casualties, one Alice Maud Mary Stead (38, Norfolk War Hospital, 30 January 1918) and Elizabeth Valerie Winder (3 months, Thorpe End, Norfolk War Hospital), both on page 203. No other details are given. The register does not contain a record of the very last burial in the cemetery, which was the interment of Hipolit Zaniewski's cremains, in December 1997.

Vivienne Roberts, who grew up near West Farm ( LinkExternal link ) and in the mid-1920s lived at Octagon Cottage, recalls that when a patient died, the nurses laid them out and put them in the coffins; the gardeers dug the graves and also supplied a wreath of flowers; the head gardener, Mr Hougham, would arrive with a glass hearse to take the coffin to the cemetery.

A considerable number of burials spanning several decades, although diligently recorded in the registers, are missing from the 1973 cemetery plan. The first grave actually shown on the plan (situated near the northern boundary fence) has the number 495. It contains the bodies of Annie Bunting from Dereham, aged 40, who was buried in #495A on 29 January 1936, and of Edith Cotterill from Heydon, aged 65, buried in #495B on 13 February 1936. The bodies were buried one on top of the other, and a grave containing one body was probably left open for as long as it took for a second body to join it. The last burial, #711B (Hannah Feltell from Southery, aged 67) is recorded on page 143 of the register to have taken place on 14 October 1966. This double grave is located immediately to the left (west) of the entrance at the southern boundary and it would seem that the cemetery was then full to capacity.

TG2809 : Paved path traversing disused cemetery by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : Oak trees on the cemetery boundary by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : View across disused cemetery by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : Disused cemetery in Memorial Way by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : View across disused cemetery in Memorial Way by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : Disused cemetery in Memorial Way by Evelyn Simak

According to the cemetery plan, and considering that the majority of the graves contain two bodies, approximately 430 bodies are shown to have been buried on the site. According to the burial registers, however, the site contains many more graves. The fact that the first grave shown on the plan has the number 495 suggests the existence of an additional 494 graves, and consequently 988 unaccounted for bodies, since most graves contain two - with the exception of a handful of Roman Catholic burials (#631, #641, #657, #658, #688), and grave #634, which is recorded to have caved in due to wet weather and was hence only used the once. Grave #666A (Agnes Sylvia Johnson of Creek Farm, Salters Lode, aged 67, buried on 29 November 1956) also contains the cremated remains of Arthur Johnson which were interred on Monday, 2 April 1973. (An addendum informs that per request of the relatives, who did not attend, only Rev G Whitehead and Mr Rooney, the funeral director, were present.) Adding the number of bodies interred in the 217 graves shown on the 1973 plan to the number of burials recorded in the register but omitted from said plan suggests that more than 1400 bodies lie buried in this cemetery, and also that many of the older graves appear to have been re-used for later interments. An official record to confirm whether all graves originally had headstones or iron markers with a number only, or if the hospital graves were in fact never marked, has as yet to be unearthed. Retired nurse Betty Willgress, who had campaigned for the installation in the cemetery of a memorial however recalls that originally all graves were marked with metal discs (Eastern Daily Press, 18 September 1995), and Raymond Wright, who had worked at the hosital as a nurse for 30 years too remembers that all graves were originally marked with metal crosses, each with a number on it (pers com).

The graves of three Polish nationals also interred there are reported to once have been marked with iron crosses. In the absence of records it cannot be established whether the men had arrived in the UK during WW2 or after peace had been declared. Under the Emergency Hospital Scheme (EHS, 1940-1947), St Andrew's Hospital had once again been used as a war hospital for wounded and recuperating service personnel, refugees and displaced persons. Steven Cherry in Mental Health Care in Modern England: The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum/St Andrew's Hospital, 1810-1998 writes that 'a number of' Polish soldiers had also been admitted, but despite having been granted full access to all available documents held at the NRO he would seem to have been unable to establish their names, numbers and status, suggesting that all military records remained with the military authorities. It has, however, been documented that all three men were admitted to the hospital at various dates in 1949 and 1950 (NRO ref SAH 225 and 570, Registers of Discharges, Departures, Transfers and Deaths; closed until 2052/2076) several years after the war had ended, which coincides with the time when refugees began to leave their camps from 1948 onwards. The fact that none of them is listed in the Registers of Casualties (NRO ref SAH 343-345, Oct 1941-Aug 1945; closed until 2046) further supports the notion that they were refugees, rather than wounded soldiers. [Tens of thousands of Poles and Polish Ukrainians displaced by the war, many freed from forced labour camps, were living in camps across Europe, mainly in Germany, Austria and Italy. In the late 1940s, the UK accepted 86,000 displaced persons as part of various government work and settlement programmes such as the European Volunteer Workers (EVW) scheme and 'Operation Westward Ho', in addition to 115,000 Polish army veterans who had joined the Polish Resettlement Corps and 12,000 former members of the Waffen SS Ukrainian Halychyna (Galicia) Division. Due to the political situation in postwar Poland, including the former Galicia and West Ukraine, which had lost large territories to the Soviet Union, they were unable to return to their homes and families; the majority of those who had served in Polish forces abroad and returned to offer their services to the new Polish state were executed as traitors.] A short history in the order of service, published on the occasion of the dedication of the memorial in the cemetery on 15 September 1995, informs that "Wounded Polish service personnel were brought here in WW2. When peace was declared, others of their countrymen joined them and remained to make a unique contribution to the life of St Andrew's".

The three Polish nationals interred in the hospital's cemetery are:

Mykola Zaluckyj from Huntingdon, died 3 Nov 1951, aged 29. Grave #631
Dmytr Teluk from Sleaford, died 8 Oct 1955, aged 45. Grave #657
Wladyslaw Pawel Bartnicki from Thorpe St Andrew, died 25 Nov 1960, aged 64. Grave #688

[In an email dated 4 December 2017, site visitor Mariusz Wojtowicz points out that two of the men were in fact Polish Ukrainians. The West Ukrainian People's Republic was a short-lived republic that existed from 1918 until early 1919 in eastern Galicia, a former crown land of Austria-Hungary which straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine, and in the 20th century was contested between the two countries. In the summer of 1919, Polish forces took over most of the territory during the Polish-Ukrainian War. West Ukraine then formed part of Poland until the outbreak of WW2 and the division and annexation of the entire territory of the Second Polish Republic by Germany and the Soviet Union on 23 August 1939.]

In contrast to almost all of the other graves, which contain two bodies, the three Polish nationals buried there are the sole occupants of their respective graves, the reason being that they were Roman Catholics. Very little information pertaining to the men has to date come to light and documents such as their patient files no longer exist because, in line with NHS policy, paper records are routinely being destroyed eight years from the date of a patient's death. What has been established is that all three men had been patients of St Andrew's hospital when they died and the reason for their burials in the hospital's cemetery can only be that they had no family or relatives in the UK. None of them would seem to have applied for British citizenship (and neither did a fourth, whose ashes were interred there in 1997), as their names are not listed in the National Archive's file HO 405 which relates to more than 90,000 individual foreign, mainly European, citizens who arrived in the UK between 1934 and 1948 and who applied for naturalisation. The reason for why a number of Polish nationals [accounts vary from 20 (John Moreton, Occupational Therapy technical instructor in the early 1970s, pers com) to 50, apparently accommodated in a ward of their own and receiving their own daily newspaper (Jane B, nurse, early 1980s, pers com), to 'a couple' who still spoke only Polish (C Page, groundsman, late 1970s; reader's comment in The History of St Andrews Asylum (Norfolk Lunatic Asylum Annexe) by David Baker)] were still living at the hospital in the 1980s and 1990s, and why they never rejoined their Polish families is not known, but the fact that they were still hospitalised decades after their arrival in the country suggests that they suffered from long-term psychological or physical health issues, or from a combination of both. Geoff Scott, a retired nurse, indeed confirms that by the early 1970s the remaining Polish group consisted of (approximately 10) patients whose care and treatment had not improved their condition to the point where they could live successful independent lives and/or could not be repatriated (pers com). Several more had, however, been transferred to a psychiatric hostel in Norwich and others were living more independently in shared accommodation, also in the city.

M Zaluckyi's burial record -->  SAH1

D Teluk's burial record -->  SAH2

WP Bartnicki's burial record -->  SAH3

Wladyslaw P Bartnicki had been living at the hospital for more than 11 years, suffering from a mental illness; he died of bronchiectasis (a long-term condition affecting the airways in the lungs). His funeral was conducted by a Catholic chaplain, presumably from Our Lady Mother Of God, the church serving Thorpe St Andrew's Catholic community (his signature in the burial register is impossible to decipher with any accuracy). Mykola Zaluckyj, a Polish (ethnic) Ukrainian suffering from a mental disorder and from tuberculosis, had been admitted to St Andrew's Hospital in August 1950. The burial register gives Huntingdon as the location of his last abode, but his name is not listed in the Register of Aliens in the records of the Huntingdonshire Constabulary or in any of the relevant registers held by the Huntingdon Archives. It is also not known whether he had perhaps been living in the Polish resettlement camp at Diddington Park (~8km SW of Huntingdon; established in 1946, after the Americans had left the 49th American Army Station Hospital, which in 1946 was renamed Polish Hospital no 6), as all records would seem to have been lost. His funeral ceremony was held by Mykola Habak, a Ukrainian Catholic chaplain who, in 1948, together with five other priests had arrived in the UK from displaced persons camps in Germany or Austria. Dmytr Teluk's last abode was Sleaford, but his name does not appear in any of the relevant records held at the Lincolnshire Archives. He too was a Polish Ukrainian, and accordingly his funeral was also conducted by a Ukrainian Catholic chaplain, Antin Mychalskyj, who is documented to have been one of the longest-serving priests in the Ukrainian Catholic Church in Great Britain (UCC-GB). Dmytr Teluk had been a patient of St Andrew's Hospital for over six years, where he was disgnosed as suffering from a 'mental deficiency'. A postmortem examination revealed that the cause of this 'deficiency' had been a cerebral tumour, which eventually killed him. A post-mortem to establish the cause of his death was performed in the morgue situated in the grounds of the Annexe on Northside, where all male patients had by then been accommodated. The morgue is still in place, albeit long since discused and now quite derelict, about 450 metres due west from the cemetery.

TG2809 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) - Annexe by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : St Andrew's hospital - the mortuary (interior) by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : St Andrew's hospital - the mortuary (interior) by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : St Andrew's hospital - the mortuary (interior) by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : St Andrew's hospital - the mortuary (interior) by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : St Andrew's hospital - the mortuary (interior) by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : St Andrew's hospital - the mortuary (interior) by Evelyn Simak

Chaplain Habak and his colleagues in faith obviously looked after the spiritual welfare of at least some of the hospital's patients. Caring for the patients' physical and psychological well-being was Dr Boleslaw Pietocha (*01.01.1911) from Dobra Wola (northern Poland) who is documented to have served in No 316 "City of Warsaw" Polish Squadron RAF as a medical officer (in 1941). On 16 August 1942 he was attached to 306 "City of Torun" Polish Squadron, then based at RAF Kirton-in-Lindsey. (Service number: P-1349, Rank: F/Lt). Nos 316 and 306 squadrons were two of 15 Polish squadrons fighting alongside the RAF in WW2. Still with 306 Squadron on 4 April 1944 (then based at RAF Coolham/Aston Down), he tried to rescue F/Lt Wladyslaw Jan Szajda, who during a training flight had to force-land his aircraft, resulting in the P-51d Mustang III (serial number FX881) bursting into flames. Despite F/Lt Pietocha's heroic attempt at trying to free the trapped pilot by amputating his legs, and in doing so exposing himself to the flames, the pilot sadly died a terrible death (source: Wilhelm Ratuszynski's Polish Squadrons Remembered website). Dr Pietocha joined the staff of St Andrew's Hospital as a psychiatrist after the war and worked there until his retirement.

Since 1968, when the Hospital Board decided, against the advice of the chaplain and various members of staff, to remove and sell for scrap all grave markers including the iron crosses marking the Polish graves (NRO ref SAH - Records of St Andrew's Hospital 1813-1998, Admin History), all the graves in the cemetery have remained unmarked and are therefore anonymous; the dead buried here, sadly, reduced to a record in an archived burial register. Due to the absence of any markers but also because of the re-use of many of the older graves it is now impossible to determine exactly where in this burial ground a particular individual is interred. The outlines of some of the graves can, however, still be discerned today.

The cemetery was closed in 1973 but no burials are recorded to have taken place after October 1966. The burial ground does, however, contain an interment of ashes, which took place in 1973 in an already existing grave and which was recorded in the burial register, and also a to date unrecorded burial of cremains interred in 1997 (details below). From 1966 onwards until the hospital was finally closed in 1998, deceased patients - including at least seven from eastern European countries who had arrived in the UK as WW2 refugees - were buried in common graves in Earlham Road (Norwich City) cemetery. [A common or unpurchsed grave is a plot belonging to the owners of the cemetery rather than to a private individual. These plots are used to bury the bodies of unrelated individuals who died over the course of a few days and did not have the means to pay for a plot with private burial rights; they are not marked with any kind of headstone.]

In 1995, the Norwich Health Association had sought permission for the erection of a memorial to commemorate the burial ground and the dead who are buried there, something that Betty Willgress, a retired nurse who had worked at the hospital, also had been campaigning for, for the past 15 years. The application, including a plan, was submitted in May 1995, and the memorial was subsequently installed and dedicated by the Archdeacon of Norfolk, The Venerable Michael Handley, in the same year. An order of service brochure published on the occasion informs that "The band played God who held Poland, a Polish patriotic hymn which had been forbidden by the conquering powers after the 1830 Uprising and banned again when re-written under a different title". Wreaths were laid by Reverend Philip Foster for The League of Friends of St Andrew's Hospital; John Vinookumar for past staff; Peter Balcombe for present staff; and Elzbieta McConnel, who worked at the hospital as a nurse, for the Polish Community.

Memorial dedication ceremony (photo published in The Beacon) -->  SAH6
NB - The text reference to 700 people interred in the burial ground ignores the fact that almost all of the 711 graves contain two bodies and that in fact twice as many people are actually interred there.

One of several plaques affixed to the memorial commemorates the occasion. Another plaque (wrongly) claims to be commemorating "those who were interred in the cemetery on this site from 1859 until 1966" - despite the well-documented fact that in 1859 a cemetery had not existed at this location, and that for this reason no-one could possibly have been interred (or can be commemorated) there before 1903, when the burial ground was opened.

 Hipo Xmas party 1976
A small stone slab adjacent to the memorial marks the burial of the cremains of Hipolit Zaniewski (14 April 1912 - 12 December 1997). 'Hipo', as members of staff were in the habit of referring to him, is the fourth Polish national interred in the cemetery. He is fondly remembered by a number of nurses who describe him as a man with a for the most part gentlemanly and likeable nature - a well known, veteran patient and probably the last member of the hospital's Polish community to have still lived there. Born in Poland, it is not known when exactly he had arrived at St Andrew's Hospital, but he had lived there for several decades and the address provided on his death certificate is indeed that of St Andrew's Hospital. His body was cremated on 19 December at the Earlham Crematorium in Norwich.

The photograph at left was taken at the hospital's 1976 Christmas Party by Geoff Scott, who had worked at the hospital between 1971 and 1986 and very kindly gave permission for it to be published here.

Geoff remembers Hipolit as very much an outdoors man who would grow restless if unable to get out into the grounds where he would by turns walk about, sit and watch the world go by and, in the right weather, lie down for a sleep under the trees. In all likelihood he had been working on the hospital's farm in the 1950s-60s, an activity which had been discontinued by the 1970s. Geoff recalls that Hipolit did not talk about his past or of any family, and would brush the subject aside if it was raised, this in a way that made it seem as if it was no longer important to him rather than because it raised negative emotions for him, and that during the 15 years he had known him he seemed generally content with his life and gave no external sign of carrying any great life trauma around with him. David Neave, who worked as a nurse on Northside in the late 1970s, describes Hipolit as always having been very quiet and reserved but always polite, always dressed tidily, often with an unlit roll-up in his hand which he would later be smoking in the day room, and that he was a tall man with a kind face ("a gentle giant"). One day he was hit by a lorry, breaking his leg; because he would not stay indoors in wet weather the cast got wet and had to be replaced. David also remembers that Hipolit was nearly always in the company of two other patients, one Polish, the other Latvian, neither of whom spoke English. Less than 10 eastern European nationals were still living at the hospital at that time. Hipolit would seem to have lived in the German-occupied zone of Poland during the war, once remarking that "when the Germans came into your village they asked you to work with them or they shot you".

 Hipolit Zaniewski
The location of Hiplolit Zaniewski's interred cremains was, until recently, not common knowledge. A formal record of the occasion would also not seem to exist. All burials of cremated remains in churchyards must be recorded in the burial register of the associated church with a note "burial of ashes"; the registers of both the burial grounds maintained by the Norwich City Council also record cremation burials. Different regulations may, however, apply to hospital-owned burial grounds. In January 2018, this author finally managed to track down the funeral directors who had been involved and who, fortunately, are not only still in business, but also still have the record confirming that the hospital had ordered the collection of the ashes from the crematorium and their transport to St Andrew's Hospital, Northside. Everything else was presumably dealt with by the hospital's chaplain, no doubt so as to keep costs to a minimum - not really surprising, considering that the hospital's administration had had no scruples to sell all the gravemarkers for scap several decades earlier. Whether a priest had indeed been present at the interment is not known.

It has also as yet to be established who ordered and paid for the stone slab inscribed with Hipolit's name. That the hospital was not involved has been confirmed through a Freedom of Information request made by this author.

The hospital was closed in April 1998, a few months after Hipo's passing and, starting in 2000/2001, the NHS sold off the land, including the cemetery. St Andrews Park has since been developed into the Broadland Business Park (owned by Lothbury Investment Management). Maintenance of the cemetery plot, which they 'inherited', is undertaken by the staff of the Business Park estate's maintenance office. Today it is tucked away at the eastern end of a new access road (formerly an unsurfaced track) called Memorial Way and hemmed in by large industrial units and warehouses, and is now being referred to as Memorial Gardens. Locally it has, however, become known as the "Polish cemetery", presumably because of information disseminated by the local press and also until recently published by the NRO (amended in January 2018), which implied that a considerable number ("many") Polish airmen are buried there. Norfolk Heritage too creates the impression of there being more Polish nationals interred on the site than there actually are, by stating that the cemetery "contains the graves of those Polish refugees who died in the hospital during World War Two" - when as a matter of fact none of the four Polish nationals buried in the cemetery died during WW2. On their own website advertising the Broadland Business Park, Lothbury, the owners of the site (who should really know better) inform that "if you want a quiet place of contemplation there is the Memorial Gardens on Memorial Way home to a Polish War Memorial".

Information about Polish resettlement camps: LinkExternal link
A short history of the Ukrainian Catholic Church and some of its priests serving in the UK can be found here: LinkExternal link


My grateful thanks go to the always welcoming and helpful archivists and staff at the Norfolk Record Office, without whom this article could not have been written in such detail.

Many thanks for their kind assistance must also go to Joanna Thornton from the Lothbury Estate Maintenance Office; Oliver Cruickshank, Communications and Engagement Manager NHS South Norfolk CCG; Debbie Thorley, NSFT Acting Compliance Manager, Hellesdon Hospital; Reverend James Stewart, St Andrew's church, Thorpe St Andrew; Nick Williams, Thorpe History Group; Catherine, Chapmans Funeral Directors; Dawn, Dignity Funerals, Earlham crematorium; Sue, Huntingdon Archives; Sharon, Lincolnshire Archives; Geoff Scott (nurse, retired); David Neave (nurse, retired); John Moreton (occupational therapy technicican, retired);

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