The gravestone in the foreground marks the burial place of one of the co-authors of the National Covenant which was signed in the kirkyard on 28th February, 1638. Henderson was also the main author of the Solemn League And Covenant which urged the Westminster Assembly in 1643 to adopt Presbyterianism in the Church of England. The monument was damaged and defaced by royalist soldiers at the Restoration of Charles II in 1660, but partially restored after the flight of James VII in 1688.
The Latin inscription on the panel to the right has been translated as,
"To the sacred memory of Mr. Alexander Henderson, chaplain to the King, minister at Edinburgh and primer of the college there: who was a scholar at St. Andrew's College there and a bountiful enlarger and patron thereof: who was a most diligent defender of the freedom and discipline of the Kirk, against the prelates raging by fraud and tyranny; a suppressor of superstition, as well as of the undergrowing secretaries; the maintainer and most constant asserter of religion, and the purest worship of God: upon which, when he had laid out himself with all care and thoughtlessness, and had endured daily labours, both in his own country, and in the neighbouring kingdom of England, profitable to the Kirk, and glorious to himself, he gave up the ghost, 19th August 1646, and of his age 63."
NT2573 : Inscription on Alexander Henderson's gravestone, Greyfriars Kirkyard
NT2573 : Alexander Henderson statue, west door of St. Giles