TQ2720 : River Adur

taken 3 years ago, near to Hickstead, West Sussex, Great Britain

River Adur
River Adur
A view of the eastern branch from TQ2720 : Stair Bridge which rises to the east in Burgess Hill and joins the western branch north of Henfield. This part forms the parish boundary between Twineham and Bolney from this point to the east of Twineham Green.
Bolney, West Sussex :: TQ2623
Bolney is a parish in mid Sussex bounded by Twineham to the south, Cuckfield to the east, Slaugham to the north and Cowfold to the west. The parish rises from the south as it hits the slopes of the High Weald with the northern part far more wooded than its southern counterpart. Likewise, many of the streams head south and are part of the eastern Adur watershed. The soil is clay with an underbed of sandstone, much quarried and used as a local building material.

Settlement wise Bolney is a characteristically Wealden parish with one main village and a large number of farms spread out over the area. The village name derives from the Saxon for Bolla’s Island due to its original location near marshy ground. An old Saxon oak walkway was discovered near the village pond and dated back to 972. Bolney village grew up along its main street and up until the 20th century occupied the southern part of the street. At the northern end of the street was Bolney Common where another separate settlement grew up around its fringes. The old street itself continued northwards into the old forests of the High Weald where early industrial activity such as charcoal burning were carried out and later iron smelting in neighbouring Slaugham, both utilising the heavy wooded areas of the north. The common was enclosed in 1841 with much of the land bounded by The street, Top Street and Ryecroft Road eventually built upon. In addition development began occurring between Bolney and Bolney Common and eventually joined together in the 20th century producing one distinct village called Bolney.

To the south west of the village at a crossroads was another small hamlet called Crosspost straddling the north-south route from Twineham to Warninglid and a minor east-west route from the village to the outlying farms. In 1808 a new London-Brighton turnpike was constructed which bypassed the village to the east and would eventually become the A23. Another new road was added in 1825 when a new east-west turnpike was constructed to the south of the village, this later became the A272. Many of the older north-south droveways still exist as quiet country lanes; to the west is Wineham Lane forming the western boundary up to the A272 where it continues northwards as Spronketts Lane to Warninglid; Bolney Chapel Road is the highway from Twineham and continues north of Crosspost as Foxhole lane then Cross Colwood Lane before it heads west to Spronketts Lane, though Colwood lane branches northwards heading to Cuckfield lane east of Warninglid; The Street was probably an older road from the south but now runs from the A272 to Top Street; to the east Stairbridge Lane heads north from Job’s Corner near Hickstead and continues northwards beyond the A272 as Buncton Lane. East-west routes, until the arrival of the A272, were largely small connecting roads, Lodge Lane between Foxhole Lane and The Street; Jeremy’s Lane between Colwood Lane and the A23. Broxmead Lane heads east from the former Bolney Common then turns north to Slough Green.

Large country houses abound, the most famous being the 19th century Wykehurst Park. Ormonde Hall dates from the 15th century and Homewood House to the 1330s, believed to be one of the oldest dwellings in the county. The latter were probably built with money made from the iron industry prevalent in the woods of Weald between the 15th and 17th centuries. The parish possessed a watermill and a windmill, the former located to the south of the village was demolished in the 1960s leaving behind two large mill ponds. The latter was situated on Bolney Common and was pulled down in 1916 on public safety grounds.
Twineham, West Sussex :: TQ2519
Twineham is a small parish in the low Weald that is bounded by Shermanbury to the west, Bolney to the north and north east, Woodmancote to the south and Hurstpierpoint to the south and east. The main settlement is the small village of Twineham, that lies on Twineham Lane and the access road to the church. To the north is the hamlet of Twineham Green on the road to Bolney and to the east is Hickstead, another hamlet, on the old A23 crossroads. On Wineham Lane to the west, which forms the parish boundary with Shermanbury, is the hamlet of Wineham, with those houses on the eastern side of the road belonging to Twineham. The landscape is one of low ridges punctuated by watercourses running east to west. Open fields predominate and there is little woodland. Much of the settlement is scattered farms, though the six in operation during the 1970s has now been reduced to one.

The current A23 runs through the eastern edge of the parish and now bypasses the old crossroads at Hickstead. However, running through the centre and forming the spine of the parish is an old north-south droveway, that links High Cross to Crosspost south of Bolney. The southern part up to the junction with Hickstead Lane is Twineham, that to the north is Bolney Chapel Road. Three roads branch off this highway, Church Lane at Twineham leads to the school and church before continuing westwards as a footpath. Hickstead Lane runs eastwards to the old crossroads at Hickstead. Lastly, Bob Lane meanders westwards from Twineham Green to Wineham Lane. The north eastern part of the parish boundary runs along Pookbourne and Stairbridge Lanes whilst the entire western boundary runs up the middle of Wineham Lane. Another highway, Gratten Lane, once linked twine ham Lane with Wineham Lane via Great Wapses Farm, but has been reduced to a bridleway.

Twineham's name derives from its location, 'the place between two waters', the two waters in this case being the eastern branch of the River Adur and one of its tributaries, Herrings Stream. Both waterways run across the parish from east to west. At Hooker's Bridge to the north once stood Hooker's Mill, originally built as a watermill but when that proved problematic with water flow added a windmill to help power it.

Twineham's small size means it lacks services, there were once two post offices, one at Twineham and one at Hickstead, but these are long closed. It still possesses its school, opened in 1864 in a former tithe barn. There was a pub at Hickstead, the Castle Hotel, later Inn, which once served travellers on the old London-Brighton turnpike, it is now a Chinese restaurant. The turnpike itself later became a trunk road which in the early 1990s was realigned to bypass the old crossroads at Hickstead, however, the new junction provided an ideal spot for services and thus a filling station, Travelodge and Little Chef appeared, the latter replacing a former building demolished when the new A23 was built.
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Grid Square
TQ2720, 56 images   (more nearby )
  (find more nearby)
Date Taken
Sunday, 31 August, 2014   (more nearby)
Wednesday, 3 September, 2014
River   (more nearby)
Subject Location
OSGB36: geotagged! TQ 2732 2092 [10m precision]
WGS84: 50:58.4178N 0:11.2759W
Camera Location
OSGB36: geotagged! TQ 2734 2091
View Direction
WEST (about 270 degrees)
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