Collaborative Landforms Gallery

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Creative Commons Licence [Some Rights Reserved]   Text © Copyright September 2012, Barry Hunter; licensed for re-use under a Creative Commons Licence.
Images also under a similar Creative Commons Licence.

This gallery is being built collaboratively, images from Britain and Ireland have been provided to illustrate various landforms extracted from a list of Wikipedia Articles with category LandformsExternal link.

As this list was part automatically generated, and part human generated, there is some editing work needed to clarify a few points.

Note that clicking on an image thumbnail displays the Geograph page with a larger photo, description, date taken and a map extract (Ordnance Survey, or Google for Ireland). Clicking on an Ordnance Survey map opens the map in a new window and you can zoom or move; for Google maps you can do this directly on the Geograph photo page. Clicking the grid square reference before the title on the photo page then clicking "more links" gives access to a number of mapping sites including satellite images. For example:
NC3045 : U-shaped corrie on east side of Arkle by Gordon Brown, click NC3045, click More links for NC3045.

The topics are those given the category landformsExternal link in Wikipedia. Those listed here have examples or near equivalents in Britain and Ireland. Some of the topics are more a habitat than a landform, and many of those are included in the United Kingdom Biodiversity Action PlanExternal link.


An alvar is a biological environment based on a limestoneExternal link plainExternal link with thin or no soil and, as a result, sparse grassland vegetation. Often flooded in the spring, and droughted in mid summer, alvars support a distinctive group of prairie-like plants. Most alvars occur either in northern Europe or around the Great Lakes in North America. This stressed habitat supports a community of rareExternal link plants and animals, including species more commonly found on prairieExternal link grasslandsExternal link. LichenExternal link and mossesExternal link are common species. Trees and bushes are absent or severely stunted.
In the United Kingdom the word "Alvar" is rarely used. The exposed landform is called a limestone pavementExternal link and thinly covered limestone is known as calcareous grasslandExternal link. They are included in the United Kingdom Biodiversity Action PlanExternal link

Wikipedia pageExternal link

Limestone pavement etc.

SD8964 : Limestone Pavement above Malham Cove by Peter Church Limestone pavement in Yorkshire
M1511 : The Burren by Peter Allen M1511 : Cathair Dhuin Irghuis, a "stone-age fort" perched above Black Head, The Burren. by Dr Charles Nelson Limestone pavement in Galway:
Limestone scars west of Kendal:
SD4890 : On Helsington Barrows by Karl and Ali SD4891 : Looking north from the Mushroom Shelter on Scout Scar by Karl and Ali SD4994 : Cunswick Scar looking towards ....... Cunswick Scar by Karl and Ali SD4488 : It's alive! by Karl and Ali
The map links below show further examples:
Map - limestone pavements in Britain
Map - limestone pavements in Ireland

Calcareous grassland

Lincolnshire and RutlandExternal link
TF0022 : Swinstead Valley SSSI by Tim Heaton TF0060 : Former RAF Coleby Grange by Richard Croft TF0118 : West Glen valley by Bob Harvey SK8918 : Bridleway in Cribb's Meadow by Christine Johnstone SK9332 : Country lane through Woodnook Valley by Kate Jewell

Examples in Southern England
SU0341 : Parsonage Down by Ian Capper TQ1850 : North Downs Above Betchworth Park by Colin Smith SU7331 : Noar Hill by Ian Capper

Arm (geography)

In geographyExternal link, an arm is a narrow extension, inletExternal link, or smaller reachExternal link, of water from a much larger body of water, like an oceanExternal link, seaExternal link, or lakeExternal link. Although different geographically, a soundExternal link or bayExternal link may be called an arm.
Wikipedia pageExternal link

NB2133 : Calanais / Callanish I - Western Arm and Loch Ròg by Rob Farrow Arm of the sea
W7269 : Hartys Quay from Jacob's Island, Cork by David Hawgood W7970 : Belvelly Bridge by Andy Beecroft Arms from an estuary
TQ9197 : An arm of Althorne Creek by Trevor Harris Arm from a creek
TQ0580 : Bridge zero, Slough Arm, Grand Union Canal by David Hawgood Slough Arm - branch of the Grand Union Canal

Bench (geology)

In geomorphologyExternal link, geographyExternal link and geologyExternal link, a bench or benchland is a long, relatively narrow strip of relatively level or gently inclined land that is bounded by distinctly steeper slopes above and below it. Benches can be of different origins and created by very different geomorphic processes.

Wikipedia pageExternal link

Differential erosion of rocks of varying hardness - "structural benches."
SD7276 : Chapel-le-Dale and Ingleborough from Twisleton Scars by Karl and Ali - see Ingleborough geology in WikipediaExternal link

Fluvial terrace, river cuts into a floodplain.
NT9725 : Valley of Carey Burn by Andrew Curtis NS5826 : River Terrace by Bob Forrest NO2794 : River terrace downstream of Crathie by Nigel Corby NR9448 : River Terrace by Michael Bottom

Wave-cut platform on coast.
SN5779 : Wave-cut platform below Allt Wen by Rudi Winter
Maps - examples all round the coast of Britain and Ireland

Shelf on side of an open-pit mine or quarry.
SH7347 : Cwt y Bugail Quarry by Eric Jones SH4490 : Precipitation Ponds by Anne Burgess SE1904 : Clay pit near Crow Edge, Dunford by Humphrey Bolton SH8339 : Quarry at Ffrith y Coed by Eirian Evans


Bocage is a NormanExternal link word which has entered both the French and English languages. It may refer to a small forest, a decorative element of leaves, a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture, or a type of rubble-workExternal link, comparable with the English use of 'rustic' in relation to garden ornamentation. In English bocage refers to a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture, with fields and winding country lanes sunken between narrow low ridges and banks surmounted by tall thick hedgerows that break the wind but also limit visibility. The term is normally applied to this type of landscape in Northern France. Similar landscapes are found in England in Devon. We also have examples from other counties of England and Wales.
Wikipedia pageExternal link

SH1929 : The view south eastwards from Rhoshirwaun by Eric Jones SS8916 : Field surrounded by trees, Stoney Lane Hill by Derek Harper TQ8715 : Pannel Sewer Valley by Simon Carey ST5938 : Field below Kings Hill by Derek Harper SY7283 : Bridleway near Osmington by Derek Harper TL4101 : Hay meadow near Brookmeadow Wood by Roger Jones TL4101 : Footpath in field near Osiers by Roger Jones TL5420 : Looking along Elgin Coppice by Roger Jones TL4500 : Great Gregories by Roger Jones TQ3997 : Livestock pen at Fernhills by Roger Jones


A bog is a wetlandExternal link habitat that accumulates peatExternal link, a deposit of dead plantExternal link material - often mossesExternal link, and in a majority of cases, Sphagnum mossExternal link. It is one of the four main types of wetlands. Other names for bogs include mire, quagmire and muskeg. Frequently they are covered in EricaceousExternal link shrubs rooted in the Sphagnum mossExternal link and peat. The gradual accumulation of decayed plant material in a bog functions as a carbon sinkExternal link.
Wikipedia pageExternal link

SU9584 : Boardwalk through the mire, Burnham Beeches by David Hawgood Bog in Burnham Beeches
SK0228 : Chartley Moss NNR by Geoff White NO1899 : Estate road on the Bealach Dearg by Richard Webb C7231 : Altikeeragh Nature Reserve near Castlerock (7) by Albert Bridge Sphagnum Moss
SN7458 : Minor confluence at Blaen Camddwr by Rudi Winter SN7866 : Bog at the head of the Nant Hafod-frith by Rudi Winter SN8173 : Grafea Elan by Rudi Winter Upland bogs
SN6964 : Bog pond, Cors Caron Nature Reserve by Rudi Winter SN6862 : Reeds in bog pool, Cors Caron Nature Reserve by Rudi Winter SN6863 : Water level gauge in the Afon Teifi by Rudi Winter NR8393 : Cattle below Dunadd, Moine Mhor beyond by David Hawgood Raised bogs in shallow river valleys

Dersingham Bog near Sandringham, Norfolk:
TF6628 : Entrance to the bog by Richard Humphrey TF6628 : Dersingham Bog (National Nature Reserve) by Richard Humphrey TF6628 : Boardwalk on Dersingham Bog, Norfolk by Richard Humphrey TF6628 : Cattle on Wolferton Fen/Dersingham Bog by Richard Humphrey TF6628 : Wolferton Fen and Dersingham Bog by Richard Humphrey
TF6521 : Boggy land near King's Lynn by Richard Humphrey A man-made bog near King's Lynn
Some bogs in Scotland: NJ7863 : Bog of Minnonie by Anne Burgess NJ3632 : Burn Treble by Anne Burgess D0742 : Maghralough by Anne Burgess NJ4442 : Waterlogged Land by Anne Burgess NJ4542 : Glenshee by Anne Burgess NF8373 : Boggy Pool by Anne Burgess NJ7861 : Bog of Minnonie by Anne Burgess NF8971 : Near Blathaisbhal by Anne Burgess NJ2461 : Moss of Barmuckity by Anne Burgess

Burn (landform)

In ScotlandExternal link, North East EnglandExternal link and some parts of IrelandExternal link, AustraliaExternal link and New ZealandExternal link, burn is a name for watercourses from large streamsExternal link to small riversExternal link. The term is also used in lands settled by the Scots and in other countries, notably in OtagoExternal link, New ZealandExternal link, where much of the naming was done by NorthumbrianExternal link-born surveyor and son of a Scot John Turnbull ThomsonExternal link.
Wikipedia pageExternal link

Mainland Scotland:
NO6948 : Keilor Burn by Anne Burgess NJ1166 : Millie Burn by Anne Burgess NJ3161 : The Black Burn by Anne Burgess NO4973 : Burn of Tillybardine by Anne Burgess NJ0461 : Mosset Burn by Anne Burgess NJ4419 : Mossat Burn by Anne Burgess NJ4018 : Glasschill Burn by Anne Burgess NJ2749 : Burn of Rothes by Anne Burgess NJ3458 : Burn of Fochabers by Anne Burgess NJ0656 : Rafford Burn by Anne Burgess NJ4557 : Burn of Aultmore by Anne Burgess NJ3157 : Red Burn by Anne Burgess NJ5612 : Leochel Burn by Anne Burgess NJ4019 : Kindie Burn by Anne Burgess NT1777 : Cockle Burn by Anne Burgess NJ6261 : Burn of Boyndie by Anne Burgess NJ8254 : Burn of Byth by Anne Burgess NJ5165 : Ford across the Burn of Cullen by Anne Burgess NJ9726 : Tarty Burn by Anne Burgess NJ4752 : Burn of Paithnick by Anne Burgess NJ8362 : Ford on the Tore Burn by Anne Burgess NJ6151 : Burn of Auchintoul by Anne Burgess NJ3849 : Rosarie Burn by Anne Burgess NJ2755 : Sauchen Burn by Anne Burgess NJ1459 : Swanstree Burn by Anne Burgess NJ1558 : Black Burn by Anne Burgess NJ3862 : Tynet Burn by Anne Burgess TQ5838 : Warwick Road, Tunbridge Wells by Jonathan Billinger
HY2527 : Burn of Boardhouse by Ingeborg Lechner and Robert Vucsina Orkney
HP5914 : Erosion along the Milldale Burn by Mike Pennington Shetland
NY6255 : Black Burn by Andrew Smith NY6939 : Black Burn by Andrew Smith NY6738 : Rowting Burn above Smittergill Head by Colin Bruce England - North Pennines


A carr, the name of which is derived from the Old Norse kjarr, meaning a swamp, is a type of waterlogged, wooded terrain that, typically, represents a successionExternal link stage between the original reedy swampExternal link and the eventual formation of forestExternal link in a sub-maritime climateExternal link. A landform which is a specific habitat.
Wikipedia pageExternal link

SH4177 : Cors Bodwrog fen from near Bodewran Bach by Eric Jones SH4077 : Anglesey Lambs at Cors Bodwrog, with Bodwrog Church in distance. by Stephen Elwyn RODDICK SJ5571 : Wet woodland by Jonathan Kington TL7584 : Willow carr, Brandon, Suffolk by Rodney Burton SU4917 : Wet woodland by Peter Facey SJ7965 : Wet woodland by Jonathan Kington SD9729 : Alder Carr wet woodland near Gibson Mill by Phil Champion NT5668 : Marshy woodland, Danskine by Richard Webb SX0560 : Marshy woodland,  Breney Common by Derek Harper TM3499 : Swampy ground by the northern tip of Sisland Carr by Evelyn Simak TG4702 : The Alder Carr (1) by Evelyn Simak TM3899 : View along the eastern edge of Hall Carr by Evelyn Simak NZ1365 : Flooded willow carr at Clayton's Wood by Andrew Curtis NZ3428 : Fen Carr, Hardwick Hall Country Park by Andrew Curtis NZ3428 : Board-walk through the Fen Carr, Hardwick Hall Country Park by Andrew Curtis


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