The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum - St Andrew's Hospital

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Text © Copyright Evelyn Simak, February 2018
Images are under a separate Creative Commons Licence.

TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak 1945 OS map of Southside ---->  SAH Southside 1945

Problems created by the 'furiously and dangerously mad' were recognised by the 'Vagrancy Acts' of 1714 and 1744, which allowed justices of the peace to order their detention. 18th-century law held such persons responsible for any criminal acts, and prisons or bridewells (houses of correction) were the main destinations for their secure accommodation. Philanthropic efforts had already produced some care homes but the 1808 'Act for the better Care and Maintenance of Lunatics, being Paupers or Criminals in England' resulted in the construction of a number of large asylums ranging in capacity from 40 to 3,500 inmates. In July 1809, a committee appointed "for the purpose of making inquiry into the number of idiots and lunatic paupers" found that there were 153 such lunatics in the county of Norfolk. County Asylums were placed throughout the country, usually (but not always) within the county they served and sites deemed suitable would commonly be large isolated tracts of land, often served by minor roads and branch railways, the qualities of such sites providing the ideal curative sources for good light, fresh clean air and a nice views across farmland and woodland. Locally they provided a sustainable source of employment for generations and developed their own communities to serve them. Further afield they were often viewed with suspicion or fear - a distant place where disturbed local people or relatives would be 'removed' to, and often surrounded with much folklore.

In April 1811, a committee composed of nine members reported the purchase of five acres of freehold land at Thorpe for 600. The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum was situated in Yarmouth Road, Thorpe St Andrew near Norwich and built according to the so-called Corridor Plan, ie a long running style of layout primarily used between 1830 and 1890, with the administration block at the centre and the wards flanking it on either side. This allowed for the easy segregation of the sexes and it also aided in the ease of communication throughout the Asylum. The architects were Francis Stone and John Brown (Norfolk County surveyors) and Robinson Cornish and Gaymer of North Walsham. The County Asylum was intended specifically for pauper lunatics and was only the second institution of its kind when completed in early 1814. The buildings were originally designed for the reception of 40 male patients in April 1814, followed by female patients in June of the same year. In October, rules and orders for the regulation and good government of the asylum were prepared, and in 1815 the Visiting Justices declared that the final cost of constructing the asylum would amount to 35,221 2s7d. The first Master, serving from 1814 until 1843, was Thomas Caryl. A description of the asylum written in 1825 presents a positive account, describing the location as being "on a fine, open healthy spot, near the Yarmouth Road", approached via four iron gates set into cast-iron palisades on low brick walls which gave access to the "fine open yard" in front of the building. The airing grounds were reached directly by the patients via their rooms. Each wing (one for each sex) was provided with an airing court, a probation yard and a convalescent yard with each yard being enclosed by high walls to "insure the safety of the patients during the hours of recreation", and laid out with grass panels intersected by gravel walks which gave them a "neat and pleasant" appearance. Sir Andrew Halliday, the Scottish physician, reformer, writer and Deputy Inspector General of Hospitals, after having visited the Thorpe Asylum as part of his country-wide survey of asylums in 1828, however voiced some criticism regarding the restricted amount of space allotted to the patients.

The ground plan in 1814 -->  SAH 1814

The main sub-divisions of the causes of insanity were moral, hereditary, physical, previous attacks and 'uncertained'. Some 21% of all patients admitted to English asylums between 1878 and 1887 had a presumed hereditary origin such as congenital idiocy, imbecility and epilepsy and of the 354 patients treated at the Norfolk Lunatic Asylum between 1861 and 1865, 52 were there because hereditary/congenital causes; 37 suffered from epilepsy and 33 had drink (intemperance) issues; 28 patients were just old and 22 suffered from problems caused by childbirth; 24 were treated for religious excitement and 9 for grief; 27 had experienced family trouble and 9 disappointed love; 2 patients would seem to have been drug addicts, as their cause of insanity is given as opium eating; another 6 were kept at the asylum for debauchery, dissipated life, prostitution or neglect and filth. (Julie Jakeway, Manifestations of Madness - A study of the patients of Norfolk County Asylum 1846-1870, unpublished thesis, University of Leicester 2010). One of the first patients admitted to the Norfolk Lunatic Asylum was William Penn (on 29 March 1815), whose insanity was thought by Thomas Caryl to have been brought on by too much reading, studying and playing music. 'Domestic' causes, and in particular 'love affairs (including seduction)' were often given as causes of female insanity. Childbirth was considered to be one of the physical causes of female insanity. Lists of various conditions treated at lunatic asylums commonly included disorders such as dementia, general paralysis (paresis), idiocy or imbecility, epilepsy, mania, melancholia, monomania and delusional insanity.

Among the treatments recorded in Thomas Caryl's diary are details of 'punishments', which he meted out to patients as he saw fit, see Archive LinkExternal link. Roughly 70 patients were present on average in the early years. The compound was surrounded by a 4ft high brick wall which was soon heightened to 5ft (1.5m) after the first patient had escaped over it in 1814. The probably most successful escapee was William W, admitted in 1839. He escaped in September 1853, after having spent 14 years in the asylum. When he was eventually returned to his parish after more than six months of freedom, the medical examiner ruled that in his opinion, William W was "perfectly sane". In the superintendent's report book it was subsequently recorded that "it would appear that a few months' absence had brought about a cure that 14 years residence in the asylum had failed to accomplish". (Julie Jakeway, unpublished thesis)

Open drains carried the sewerage to the River Yare. The patients used knives and forks made from bone and were bathed three or four at a time. Attendants and nurses were called keepers, and the rooms were referred to as cells. The cells had an open paved drain at the centre and the doors had no handles. Cage beds, straitjackets, leather mittens, iron belts and handcuffs were in constant use. The bedding was straw, with barley straw used for the "bad cases". Fish oil was used for the lanterns and all furniture was secured to floors or walls. Entries in Thomas Caryl's journal reveal that 30 patients, 15 men and 15 women, had died during 1834. The cause of death of 10 of the patients is given as "Decline"; seven died from Consumption; five from Epilepsy; four from Apoplexy; two from Dropsical (Dropsy); one from a Paralytic fit; the cause of death of another is given as "Feeble" (SAH 127, Norfolk Record Office). Many patients, however, fully recovered after having spent some time at the asylum, and it has been documented that the average percentage of recoveries in the 1880s was 43%; 40.7% in the 1890s; 39% between 1900 and 1909; and 37.1% between 1910 and 1914 (Steven Cherry, see recommended reading). Thomas Caril was superceded in 1843 by Ebenezer Owen, former master of Malmsbury Union Workhouse. Interestingly, the job description was for an "unmarried man aged under 45, able to read and write and do documents".

Besides the patients classified as harmless idiots and imbeciles, the hospital also housed a number of criminal lunatics, such as Elizabeth Baldry (1821) who had been tried for a felony at Norwich; the murderers Richard Scott (1829) and John Rudd Turner (1832); and poor Mary Ann Pycroft who was tried and then held for "want of bail", in April 1832. In 1844, the hospital had 164 patients, all described as paupers. In addition to its certified patients, the asylum also accommodated a steadily increasing number of voluntary patients, of which there were 24 in 1830 and more than 80 in the late 1830s.

The original five-acre site was extended after the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy had complained in 1843 about the seats and benches in the airing courts being furnished with chains and leg locks, and the inadequate extent of land which they viewed as essential to the occupation of the patients. By January 1846, a considerable number of men were working in the yards and outhouses as well as in the grounds and gardens. In 1847, an additional two and a half acres of land was bought, part of which was laid out as a garden and the other as a pleasure ground for the use of female patients to enjoy fresh air and exercise. In 1849 the building too was extended and the male and female sides were reversed. The original six small airing courts were amalgamated into two large ones, one on each side of the south front, and two new courts were added to the west and east of the building. At that time a large, square kitchen garden lay immediately to the west of the main building, with a further area of kitchen garden to the east, and to the north of this there was an area referred to as a garden and occupied by what would seem to have been an orangery. Due to the passing turnpike road being moved further north the main entrance and the lodge beside it were demolished and new lodges were built.

By 1854, the asylum accommodated 298 patients and an additional 30 acres of land were purchased in response to further criticism by the Commissioners in Lunacy. It was hoped that the general increase in the space available to patients would lead to a lessening in the number of chronic patients and the lessening of the mortality of the other patients. The 1854 report admitted that the limited amount of asylum estate land had until then made it difficult to find work for those patients used to agricultural work. Idleness was regarded as a major limiting factor to the recovery of the patients but nearly all the patients had some kind of physical ailment, restricting the amount of work they could be expected to undertake. In the summer a piece of land had been rented and 50 men were engaged daily in "cricketing". Marching drill was held daily in the grounds because, as a Lunacy Commission Inspector remarked, "Great control is gained over the patients, and the task of taking a vast number to a distance from the Asylum for air and exercise, becomes comparatively easy". (Sarah Rutherford, The Landscapes of Public Lunatic Asylums in England, Sept 2003).

The behaviour of attendants remained a cause for concern. In 1859, Maria F, a female attendant, was fined 10s for abuse and bad language; female attendant Hannah B was dismissed for being intoxicated; Samuel T, a male attendant, received a caution after kicking a patient; and male attendant John E was dismissed for violence against patient William S. In the same year Ebenezer Owen was replaced by Dr Edward Cassion, a former medical officer. Cassion was, however, forced to resign in July 1860 due to him having been deemed unfit to fulfil the duties of his office. He subsequently committed suicide by taking Prussic Acid on 4 August. [Prussic acid is also known as Hydrogen cyanide, a blood agent which several decades later was tested as a chemical weapon in WW1 - a dose of 2000 ppm (about 2380 mg/m3) is said to kill a human within about one minute. Hydrogen cyanide was also used in the Nazi extermination camps, and it was the agent employed in judicial execution in some US states.]

William White's History, Gazetteer & Directory of Norfolk (1864) informs that in 1861 the asylum had 381 patients. "The appartments and galleries are well ventilated, and fitted up for the accommodation of 45o patients, of whom it has generally upwards of 360, who are maintained at the average weekly cost of 8s 6d per head for the pauper lunatics, and 14s for the boarders (ie voluntary patients). The principal rooms are decorated with pictures and other ornaments, within easy reach, and 13 male and 15 female attendants are continuously at hand to assist and watch over the patients." The medical superintendent was William Charles Hills MD; Charles White was the assistant medical officer and Mrs Hills was the matron.

Dr Hills, resident medical officer at the Kent County Asylum for the past seven years, took up his post in November 1861, replacing Dr Cassion. He would seem to have been very advanced and forward-thinking for the time, recognising the risk posed by contagious diseases and requesting the installation of isolation wards. Infectious diseases blocks were consequently added in 1862. Dr Hills would also seem to have been one of the first clinicians to introduce what today is known as music therapy, as he is documented to have formed an orchestra composed of members of staff and, so it is believed, patients. William Moore Girling, the clerk and house steward, was given the task of training up a number of attendants (male nurses) to play musical instruments and to read sheet music. In 1863, Dr Hills recorded in his diary that savings of 10 per year had been made thanks to not having to bring in musicians to play at the asylum's dances. The orchestra is reported to have held regular rehearsals, and to have performed regularly on the occasion of Saturday balls, dances and concerts, frequently using specially scored music, until it folded at some time during the 1940s.

When the hospital's former barrel-vauted theatre - it was housed in the recreation hall situated adjacent to the chapel in the north, and equipped with a stage and an orchestra pit at one end - was cleared before its demolition, a large bundle of the orchestra's music, ranging from classical to light, was found amongst other items put up for auction. Superintendent Thomson in 1903 describes the recreation hall as "a handsome timber-roofed hall 120ft (36 metres) long by 26ft (8 metres) broad used for the indoor amusement in winter. Amusement as well as employment is a powerful remedial agent in the treatment of mental disorder, not only in curable cases but to relieve the tedium and monotony of institution life among our permanent residents, staff as well as patients, so the dances, concerts, theatricals, for which a well appointed stage with accessories is provided, biograph and other lantern shows are much looked forward to and enjoyed, enhanced as they are by an excellent string band of some 14 performers under the leadership of Mr Charles Fox, our esteemed and talented head attendant". (DG Thomson, County Asylum 1814-1903, 17 Sept 1903; SAH 323, Norfolk Record Office)

James Laws, a theatrical lighting engineer and local historian based in Beccles, acquired the bundle of sheet music a day after the sale together with other items that had not sold, because he felt that the scores were too important to be thrown out. He gave the music to his friend David Juritz, the then leading violinist of the London Mozart Players, who subsequently formed a part-time group of musicians playing some of the specially scored pieces in tribute to the asylum's orchestra. The story of the rescue of the orchestra's music was broadcast in a BBC Radio 4 programme on 20 June 2006.

From the 1930s up to the 1970s, the hospital also had a patients' choir. A number of asylums would seem to have taken up the idea of offering music therapy (the term 'music therapy' began to emerge in healthcare contexts during the late 19th and early 20th centuries) and there are indeed a number of accounts from the late 1800s of playing music in hospitals and asylums across the UK as choirs, bands and orchestras performed to various different patient groups, such as at the Powick Lunatic Asylum in Worcester, where in 1879 the young composer Edward Elgar had been employed to write music for and conduct the ensemble band (made up entirely of members of staff).

Over the following years more improvements were made. According to a decription published in the 1883 edition of Kelly's Directory for Cambridgeshire, Norfolk & Suffolk, "the range of buildings have undergone extensive alterations: the interior is exceedingly light and clean, the grounds are spacious and the air healthy: additional buildings were erected in 1869-70 and in 1873-74. The house at present contains 175 male and 313 female patients." Dr Hills still served as the resident medical superintendent. He was assisted by Thomas J Compton MB, assistant medical officer; Alexander McWilliam was the junior assistant medical officer and Charles Williams the honourary visiting medical officer; Reverend Edward Ram, vicar of St John Timberhill, was the chaplain and Mrs Arnoup the housekeeper; the head female attendant was Miss F Nuti, and James Ramsey was the head male attendant; Miss Nertha Waters was the housekeeper and head female attendant. White's Gazetteer (1883) reports that the average weekly cost of maintaining the asylum's patients had risen to 8s 9d per head for the pauper lunatics and 14s and 20s for the boarders. The asylum grounds are described as being extensive and tactfully laid out. The building was considerably enlarged in 1869 by the addition of two wards on the female side, and again in 1873 by an additional large ward; the two wards on the male side were also extended in 1876.

The majority of male patients within the asylum system before WW1 were frequently poor and without spouses to look after them. After WW1, "shell shock" was a prevalent condition among male patients. Alcoholism and the delusion related with it were also common reasons for certification. Male patients were cared for by male attendants, easily recognised because of the peaked caps they wore with their navy blue uniforms. Locals reportedly referred to the hospital as "The Building". In the inter-war years, St Andrew's Hospital, a name adopted informally from 1924 onwards to recognise the dedication of the parish church, which is recorded in the village's full name as Thorpe St Andrew, was still mainly self-supporting and for this reason an asylum diet was generally better than in many working households, with fish or meat and vegetables for lunch and bread and cheese supplemented by beer, cocoa and tea. The hospital also had a number of workshops essential to its running, and a farm (West Farm --> LinkExternal link including cattle yards and a piggery, the latter designed in 1906 by Thomas Hind Blumer Heslop (1891-1913), the Norfolk County surveyor), which produced food for the inmates. The cow house at West Farm received an extension in February 1957 and the hospital's butchers shop is reported to have still been used for processing meat in the late 1980s (J Goose).
Sheep were brought in to graze the root crops on the fields not used in the kitchens. There were also greenhouses for growing tomatoes, cucumbers and other vegetables.

By 1880, more than half of the 152 men and three quarters of the 188 women patients had been working. Many of the male patients worked, under the supervision of an attendant, in the fields, orchards, vegetable gardens or the bakery. Female patients commonly worked in the laundry, needle rooms and kitchens, of as ward helpers or cleaners. In the 1880s, at least 15 women are documented to have been occupied in knitting. Some of the female patients are reported to have been taken out for a walk through the village or a visit to the shops once a week. According to case notes, most of the women spent only short periods in the aylum, for instance in order to recover from the stress and exhaustion of their domestic lives or from a problematic marriage. Some were admitted as a result of giving birth to an illegitimate child. What is now known as post natal depression was also a common reason for admittance. All patients were paid for their work and the minimum working time was five and a half hours. On Boxing Day 1886, David Thomson, who had been senior medical officer at the Surrey County Asylum and was only 30 years old, took over WC Hill's post as medical superintendent. He worked at the asylum until May 1922, when he was replaced by Oliver George Connell.

Suicides were not unknown and a number of attempts by patients to take their lives have been documented. Three successful suicides occurred in the years between 1857 and August 1969: Elizabeth C, aged 44, killed herself by hanging in March 1857; Mary W, aged 37, hanged herself in March 1864; and Thomas B, aged 27, drowned himself in August 1869. One patient is known to have taken his life by standing in front of a train on the Yarmouth railway line; his body was taken away on the hand propelled trolley from Whitlingham Station (source: HC Bussey via Thorpe History Group). Suicidal patients constituted a significant proportion of the annual admissions to 19th century public lunatic asylums. They formed a distinct patient category that required treatment and management strategies that were capable of frustrating their suicidal propensity and alleviating their mental affliction. Yet despite being relatively large in number, the suicidal population of public asylums has received only nominal attention in the history of 19th century psychiatry. (Sarah Hayley York, Suicide, Lunacy and the Asylum in 19th Century England, Thesis submitted to The University of Birmingham).

TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak

TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2808 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2808 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2808 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak

TG2808 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2808 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2808 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak

TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2808 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak

The hospital was served by its own chapel, which is situated to the south of the main block, adjacent to the perimeter road now known as Francis Stone Court. The Grade 2 listed chapel was built in the Classical Revival style in 1856-59 by John Brown, county surveyor, of yellow brick, with ashlar and brick dressings and had seatings for a congregation of 450 worshippers. The building has a hipped slate roof with a hipped octagonal ventilator on top. The building has an octagonal body with a porch and a vestry on its east side, now known as 'The Old Chapel', and an organ chamber and a bell tower to the north. A detailed survey of the mortuary also housed in this part of the chapel was carried out in May 2004, before its conversion for residential use. A white glazed ceramic dissection table, thought to date from the 19th century and hence installed when the building was erected in 1857, was found in the south-east room. One of the adjacent rooms was the chaplain's office, where Reverend JD Paulette once used to write his journals and in 1872 campaigned against the segregated burials of asylum patients which, so he recorded, had caused "much distress" to their relatives (SAH 152, NRO). The rectangular western section, dating from 1880 and now known as 'The Nave', had an entrance lobby added in 1913, which had been designed by THB Heslop.

TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) - the chapel by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) - the chapel by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) - the chapel by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) - the chapel by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) - the chapel by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak TG2708 : The Norfolk Lunatic Asylum (St Andrew's Hospital) by Evelyn Simak

By 1876, the old asylum building had become inadequate for the requirements of the county and it was decided to expand and build a new asylum on farmland about a quarter of a mile distant in order to be able to accommodate more patients. The auxiliary asylum or Annexe, as it was referred to, was ready for occupation in 1881. It was situated to the north of the main buildings on Southside, ie south of Yarmouth Road, and was referred to as Northside. It was built to the Standard Pavilion Plan, which consisted of a long linear corridor extending to either side of the administration block, with the ward blocks orientated perpendicular to the corridor and attached at their ends. The water tower was located either centrally or remotely. Northside was linked with Southside by a lane lined by lime trees that was carried over Yarmouth Road by a stone bridge. The Grade 2 listed bridge had been built by John Brown and was completed in 1856. It is of yellow brick with ashlar dressings and has a single elliptical arch with rusticated piers, an impost band and a dated keystone. The rusticated pilasters on each side carry piers with chamfered caps. The panelled parapet has a chamfered coping. The bridge was used by male asylum patients, while these were still accommodated on Southside, to access the farmland to the north, where many of them worked.

TG2808 : 19th century bridge crossing Yarmouth Road (A1042) by Evelyn Simak TG2808 : Bridge over Yarmouth Road (A1042) by Evelyn Simak TG2808 : Disused road to Northside by Evelyn Simak TG2808 : 19th century bridge over Yarmouth Road (A1042) by Evelyn Simak TG2808 : Old trees lining old road by Evelyn Simak TG2809 : Path past the disused Cricket pitch by Evelyn Simak

A short distance east of the bridge, on the north side of Yarmouth Road and opposite the junction with Boundary Lane, the brick gate posts at the entrance to the medical superintendent's house are still in place. The property, designed by TBH Heslop and constructed in 1892, was situated to the left (west) of the entrance, above Yarmouth Road. Dr Thomson's old residence in the asylum grounds on Southside was subsequently subdivided between senior staff living on site.

TG2808 : Entrance to Thorpe End by Evelyn Simak TG2808 : A former driveway and footpath by Evelyn Simak

The superintendent's house was later named 'Thorpe End', which can still be seen written on the gate posts. The house was demolished, after having been used as a base for occupational therapy services for some time, when the Broadland Business Park was built. John Moreton, who at the time was employed by the hospital as an occupational therapy technician, recalls that in the early 1970s the building, which he describes as a large, beautiful Victorian house, had indeed been used as the occupational therapy headquarters, mainly because its many rooms were ideal for craft activities such as pottery, woodwork and art. John had previously been involved in folk music and one of his projects was to start a Folk Club in what he presumes to have been the former lounge, as this was the largest room. Patients were charged an admission fee of 6d, which was saved up to pay visiting singers. The location is now occupied by a national grid gas installation and by Lakeside 200, one of the modern office buildings at the end of Old Chapel Way on the south-western edge of the business park.

The rumours concerning a mysterious tunnel linking Southside with Northside would seem to be based on a subway which existed between the two sites and carried heating ducts. It was built in the summer of 1934 by William Freer Ltd, Heating & Ventilating Engineers, Leicester, London & Norwich. (SAH 876, Norfolk Record Office)


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