Bench Mark :: Shared Description

Bench marks were historically used to record the height above sea level of a location as surveyed against the Mean Sea Level data (taken at Clarendon Dock, Belfast, for Northern Ireland data, Newlyn in Cornwall for data in Great Britain and Portmoor Pier, Malin Head, for data relating to the Republic of Ireland). They were used as part of a greater surveying network by the UK Ordnance Survey, Ordnance Survey Northern Ireland (OSNI) and the Ordnance Survey Ireland (OSI). If the exact height of one bench mark is known then the exact height of the next can be found by measuring the difference in heights, through a process of spirit levelling. In this way hundreds of thousands of bench marks were sited all around the UK & Ireland from the mid 19th to late 20th centuries. There are several distinct types of bench mark:

- Fundamental bench marks have been constructed at selected sites where foundations can be set on stable strata such as bedrock. Each FBM consists of a buried chamber with a brass bolt set in the top of a granite pillar. See NG8825 : Dornie fundamental bench mark for an example. FBMs were used in Ireland as well as GB but those in Ireland do not have any surface markers, nor are they marked on standard maps.
- Flush brackets consist of metal plates about 90 mm wide and 175 mm long. Each bracket has a unique serial number. They are most commonly found on most Triangulation Pillars, some churches or on other important civic buildings. See J3270 : Flush Bracket, Belfast for an example.
- Cut bench marks are the commonest form of mark. They consist of a horizontal bar cut into a wall or brickwork and are found just about anywhere. A broad arrow is cut immediately below the centre of the horizontal bar. See J3372 : Bench Mark, Belfast for an example. The horizontal mark may be replaced by or contain a bolt - see J1486 : Bench Mark, Antrim.
Other marks include:
- Projecting bench marks such as SD8072 : Projecting Bracket Benchmark on St Oswald's Tower
- Bolt bench marks such as SJ1888 : OSBM bolt on Hilbre Island
- Rivet bench marks such as J3978 : Bench Mark, Holywood
- Pivot bench marks such as SJ2661 : Pivot bench mark on Leeswood Bridge

Bench marks are commonly found on older buildings or other semi-permanent features such as stone bridges or walls. Due to updated mapping techniques and technological advances such as GPS, bench marks are no longer maintained. Many are still in existence and the markers will probably remain until they are eventually destroyed by redevelopment or erosion.
by Rossographer
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3218 images use this description. Preview sample shown below:

SK4637 : Stanton Cross and the old Post Office by Alan Murray-Rust
NO4203 : OS benchmark - Upper Largo, wall beside Eagle Gates entrance by Richard Law
D4001 : Flush Bracket, Larne by Rossographer
SJ0732 : OS flush bracket - Cadair Berwyn by Richard Law
SK8053 : Bench mark, County Council offices, Balderton Gate  by Alan Murray-Rust
SK2425 : Benchmark, Horninglow Road North by Alan Murray-Rust
SO9422 : OS benchmark - Cheltenham, HSBC Bank by Richard Law
SK5238 : Bench mark, The Nurseryman, Beeston by Alan Murray-Rust
SY1387 : OS benchmark - Sidmouth, St Kilda Lodge by Richard Law
SP1786 : OS benchmark - Chelmsley Wood Elec substation by Richard Law
SP1984 : OS benchmark - NEC hall 4 by Richard Law
NG1756 : Dunvegan Head Bolt Bench Mark - detail by Richard Dorrell
SP2388 : OS benchmark - Maxstoke, former schoolhouse by Richard Law
TL1298 : Bench mark, 33 Peterborough Road, Castor by Alan Murray-Rust
SK4746 : Bench mark, Beauvale School by Alan Murray-Rust
SK6291 : Bench mark, Bircotes Library by Alan Murray-Rust
J3474 : Bench Mark, Belfast by Rossographer
SP3067 : Bench mark, railway bridge, Old Milverton by Alan Murray-Rust
SO7890 : OS benchmark - Sytch House Green by Richard Law
SK4641 : Bench mark, former Post Office, Ilkeston by Alan Murray-Rust
SK0002 : OS benchmark - Blakenhall Heath, 30 Ryle Street by Richard Law
SP1979 : OS benchmark - Eastcote, The Paddock outbuilding by Richard Law
NH7656 : Bench mark, Fort George by Alan Murray-Rust
NO4202 : OS benchmark - Lower Largo, 12 The Temple by Richard Law
NS3778 : Bench mark, Carman Muir by Lairich Rig

... and 3193 more images.

These Shared Descriptions are common to multiple images. For example, you can create a generic description for an object shown in a photo, and reuse the description on all photos of the object. All descriptions are public and shared between contributors, i.e. you can reuse a description created by others, just as they can use yours.
Created: Tue, 2 Mar 2010, Updated: Tue, 14 Jun 2016

The 'Shared Description' text on this page is Copyright 2010 Rossographer, however it is specifically licensed so that contributors can reuse it on their own images without restriction.

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